Definition of Terms
The frontal are also referred to as frontal lobes and are considered our emotional control center and home to our personality. The frontal lobes are involved in motor function, problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, initiation, judgment, impulse control, and social and sexual behavior
The bonny structures of the orbit which is the hollow cavity that holds the eyeball and its muscles, nerves, and blood vessels, in addition to the structures that produce and drain tears. It protrudes beyond the surface of the eye and protects the eye while allowing it to move freely in a wide arc.
The nasal is also known as nose and is the body’s organ of smell which as well functions as part of the body’s respiratory system. Air comes into the body through the nose. As it passes over the specialized cells of the olfactory system, the brain recognizes and identifies smells. Hairs in the nose clean the air of foreign particles.
The maxilla forms the upper jaw by fusing together two irregularly-shaped bones along the palatal fissure. The maxillary bones on each side join in the middle at the intermaxillary suture and assist to support the posterior teeth. The bones help to form the upper jaw, parts of the eye sockets, and the lower parts and sides of the nasal cavity
The lower jaw has its own distinct bone which is known as ‘the mandible’, which is U-shaped and stretches from one ear, down to the chin area and then back up again to the other ear. It is linked to the upper part of the head around the ear region by two jaw joints known as ‘tempero mandibular joints
The cervical vertebrae of the spine are made up of seven bony rings that reside in the neck between the base of the skull and the thoracic vertebrae in the trunk. The cervical vertebrae are the thinnest and most delicate bones but have the huge jobs of supporting the head, protecting the spinal cord, and providing mobility to the head and neck.
One of the bones that meet at the shoulder is the clavicle, which is as well known as the collarbone. The collarbone is long, curvy, and situated at the root of the neck. One of the major functions of the collarbone is to hold the arms freely and supported, away from the trunk. Fractures of the collarbone are common.
The sternum, as well known as the breastbone, is a long, narrow flat bone that serves as the keystone of the rib cage and stabilizes the thoracic skeleton. Many muscles that move the arms, head, and neck have their origins on the sternum. It as well protects many vital organs of the chest, such as the heart, aorta, vena cava, and thymus gland.
Prolonging the ribs into a forward motion, the costal cartilage permits the thorax to maintain elasticity in the walls. There are twelve costal cartilage sections. Each has two cartilages, extremities, and borders. Seven pairs of the costal cartilage are linked to the sternum. Two of the costal cartilage sections are pointed, ending in the walls of the abdomen.
The humerus is both the largest bone in the arm and the only bone in the upper arm. Many powerful muscles that manipulate the upper arm at the shoulder and the forearm at the elbow are anchored to the humerus. Movement of the humerus is important to all of the varied activities of the arm, like throwing, lifting, and writing.
The xiphoid process is the smallest and most inferior region of the sternum, or breastbone. At birth, it is a thin, approximately triangular region of cartilage that gradually ossifies into a bone and fuses with the body of the sternum. Clinically, the xiphoid process plays an important role as a bony anatomical landmark in the trunk.
The radius or radial bone is one of the two large bones of the forearm, the other being the ulna. It extends from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist and runs parallel to the ulna, which exceeds it in length and size. It is a long bone, prism-shaped and slightly curved longitudinally.
The ulna is the longer, larger and more medial of the lower arm bones. Many muscles in the arm and forearm attach to the ulna to carryout movements of the arm, hand and wrist. Movement of the ulna is vital to such everyday functions as throwing a ball and driving a car.
The wrist is made up of eight small bones known as (carpal bones) in addition to two long bones in your forearm known as the radius and the ulna. The most frequently injured carpal bone is the scaphoid bone, located near the base of your thumb.
The metacarpals are long bones in miniature that are linked to the carpals, or wrist bones, at the wrist, and connect from there to the phalanges, or finger bones. The metacarpals together are known as the “metacarpus.” The tops of the metacarpals form the knuckles where they connect to the wrist. On the palm side, they are covered with connective tissue.
Phalanges are the bones of the fingers and of the toes found in the limbs of most vertebrates. They are generally three phalanges (distal, middle, and proximal for each digit except the thumbs and large toes. The singular of phalanges is phalanx.
The pubic symphysis is a midline or secondary cartilaginous joint located between the left and right pubic bones of the median plane. It is located superior to any external genitalia and anterior to the bladder. It can be found above the penis in males and above the vulva in females. In males, the joint links to the ligament of the penis.
Chondromalacia patellae refers to the progressive erosion of the particular cartilage of the knee joint, that is the cartilage underlying the kneecap (patella) that articulates with the knee joint. Chondromalacia patellae (CMP), is as well known as patello-femoral pain syndrome or patello-femoral stress syndrome.
Tibia is as well known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger and stronger of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula), and it links the knee with the ankle bones. The tibia is located next to the fibula on the medial side of the leg, closer to centre-line.
The fibula is the name of one of the paired bones in the lower leg of human beings. The other, the tibia, is much thicker, and the fibula links to it by means of both appropriate articulation and ligaments. A few tendons are contained within two major grooves at the distal, or bottom, end of the fibula (the lateral malleolus).
The femur, or thigh bone, is the longest, heaviest, and strongest bone in the whole human body. All of the body’s weight is supported by the femurs during a lot of activities, like running, jumping, walking, and standing. Extreme forces as well act upon the femur supported by the strength of the muscles of the hip and thigh that act on the femur to move the leg.
The ilium is the most dorsal element and the only one extending forward of the socket of the leg (acetabulum). The ilium is fused with the synsacrum and the ischium, the ischium which is fused with the pubis. All three serve as attachments for leg muscles and contribute to the acetabulum, which forms the articulation for the femur.
The lumbar spine or lumbar vertebrae is the lower back, where the spine curves inward toward the abdomen. It begins about five or six inches below the shoulder blades, and links with the thoracic spine at the top and extends downward to the sacral spine.
The ilium is the largest of the three innominate bones of the pelvis. It is a large, flattened, fairly cup-shaped bone having a large crest on the anterior and posterior side with four spines serving as sites for muscle and ligament attachments. They are as well significant anatomical landmarks.
The sacrum is a large wedge shaped vertebra at the inferior end of the spine. It forms the solid base of the spinal column where it connects with the hip bones to form the pelvis. The sacrum is a very strong bone that supports the weight of the upper body as it is spread across the pelvis and into the legs.
The coccyx is the very bottom part of the spine. It represents a vestigial tail, thus it is commonly referred to as “tailbone” and made up of three or more very small bones joined together. The coccyx is made up of about three and five separate or fused vertebrae.
The pubis is covered by a layer of fat, which is covered by the mons pubis. It is divided into a body, a superior ramus and an inferior ramus. In the female, the pubic bone is anterior to the urethral sponge. The left and right hip bones join at the pubic symphysis. The pubis is the lower limit of the suprapubic region.