parts and functions: human nervous system


 7 parts of the Human nervous system and their functions

Pituitary gland

The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland located in the center of the skull, inferior to the hypothalamus of the brain and posterior to the bridge of the nose. It is an important link between the nervous and endocrine systems and releases many hormones which affect growth, sexual development, metabolism and human reproduction.

Cerebrum

The cerebrum is Latin for “brain” and it is the largest part of the brain as a whole. It is where things like perception, imagination, thought, judgment, and decision occur. The surface of the cerebrum known as the cerebral cortex is made up of six thin layers of neurons, which sit on top of a large collection of white matter pathways.

Cerebellum

The cerebellum is located at the base of the brain, just above the brain stem, where the spinal cord meets the brain, and is made of two hemispheres. The cerebellum receives information from the sensory systems, the spinal cord, and other parts of the brain and then regulates motor movements. The cerebellum coordinates voluntary movements such as posture, balance, coordination, and speech, resulting in smooth, balanced muscular activity.

Pona varolii

A band of nerve fibers on the ventral surface of the brainstem that links the medulla oblongata and the cerebellum with upper portions of the brain is known as pons varolli. On the ventral surface of the brain, the basilar part of pons (that is, the white pontine protuberance) is demarcated from both themedulla oblongata and the mesencephalon by distinct transversegrooves.

Spinal cord

The Spinal Cord is connected to the brain and is about the diameter of a human finger. From the brain the spinal cord descends down the middle of the back and is covered and protected by the bony vertebral column. The spinal cord is surrounded by a clear fluid called Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) which cushions and protect the delicate nerve tissues against damage.

Vertebral column

Vertebral column is as well known as spinal column, spine, or backbone in vertebrate animals. It is the flexible column that extends from neck to tail, made of a series of bones known as the vertebrae. The main function of the vertebral column is to protect the spinal cord, provide stiffening for the body plus attachment for the pectoral/ pelvic girdles.

Dura mater

In the central nervous system, there are three different layers that cover the spinal cord and brain. These are known as the meninges and are made up of pia, arachnoid and dura mater. Bone is situated above these layers, followed by periosteum and skin. The dura mater is located at the top, underneath the bone tissue

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