Only a minute portion of the collisions between reactant molecules change the reactants into the products of the chemical reaction. This can be understood by considering the reaction between ClNO2 and NO.
ClNO2(g) + NO(g) NO2(g) + ClNO(g)
During the process of this reaction, a chlorine atom is transmitted from one nitrogen atom to another. To enable the reaction to occur, the nitrogen atom in NO have to bump with the chlorine atom in ClNO2
The reaction will not take place if the oxygen end of the NO molecule collides with the chlorine atom on ClNo2
It will also not take place if an oxygen atom from among the 2 atoms on ClNO2 collides with the nitrogen atom on NO.
An additional factor that determines if a reaction will take place is the energy the molecules carry or bears the moment they come in contact for collision. It is not every molecule that possesses the same kinetic energy. This is significant for the reason that the kinetic energy molecules bear the moment they bump is the most important basis of the energy that ought to be invested in a reaction to make it to occur.
The total typical free energy for the reaction between ClNO2 and NO is favorable.
ClNO2(g) + NO(g) NO2(g) + ClNO(g) Go = -23.6 kJ/mol
But, prior to the reactants being converted into products, the free energy of the system ought to conquer the activation energy for the reaction.
All molecules have a definite minimum quantity of energy. The energy can either be in the form of Kinetic Energy and/or Potential Energy. When molecules come in contact with one another, the kinetic energy of the molecules can be made use of to elongate, twist, and eventually break bonds, resulting to chemical reactions. If molecules are travelling too unhurriedly with a small kinetic energy, or they collided with an inappropriate direction, they will not lead to reaction and would merely bounce away from each other. Nevertheless, if the molecules are travelling at a swift speed sufficient to cause a successful collision orientation, in a manner that the kinetic energy on collision is higher than the minimum energy barrier, then a reaction will take place. The minimum energy obstruction that ought to be achieved for a chemical reaction to occur is known as the activation energy; Ea. Ea is normally in units of kilojoules per mole