Organic chemistry: alkynes


      Organic chemistry: alkynes
Alkynes are organic molecules that are made of the functional group of carbon-carbon triple bonds. Their empirical formula is CnH2n-2. They are unsaturated hydrocarbons. Similar to the alkenes they have the suffix –ene, alkynes use the ending –yne. This suffix is employed when there is only one alkyne in the molecule.

Below are the molecular formulas and names of the first ten carbon straight chain alkynes.

Name – Molecular Formula

Ethyne – C2H2

Propyne – C3H4

1-Butyne – C4H6

1-Pentyne – C5H8

1-Hexyne – C6H10

1-Heptyne – C7H12

1-Octyne – C8H14

1-Nonyne – C9H16

1-Decyne – C10H18

Ethyne is commonly known as acetylene. It is being made use of industrially.

Naming Alkynes

Just like the alkane and alkene the IUPAC rules are made use of while naming naming alkynes. Below are the rules to follow:

Rule no 1

Look for the longest carbon chain that contains the two carbon atoms of the triple bond.

Rule no 2

Assign number to the longest chain beginning from the end nearest to the triple bond. A 1-alkyne is known as a terminal alkyne and alkynes at any other place is referred to as internal alkynes.

For instance:

4-chloro-6-diiodo-7-methyl-2-nonyne

Rule 3

After assigning numbers to the longest chain with the lowest number, tag every one of the substituents at its equivalent carbon. In writing out the name of the molecule, organize the substituents in alphabetical order. If the substituents are more than one, they should be differentiated with the prefixes di, tri, and tetra for two, three, and four substituents correspondingly. These prefixes are not written in alphabetical order.

For instance:

1-triiodo-4-dimethyl-2-nonyne

Aromatic Hydrocarbons-Benzene

The adjective “aromatic” is employed by organic chemists in a relatively dissimilar way than what is usually applied

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