Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is the extensively held concept that all life is interrelated and has descended from a common ancestor: the birds and the bananas, the fishes and the flowers are all related.
Darwin’s general theory presumes the development of life from non-life and stresses an entirely naturalistic (undirected) “descent with modification”. That is, composite creatures develop from more simple ancestors unsurprisingly over time.
In summary, as random genetic mutations take place in an organism’s genetic code, the valuable mutations are conserved due to the fact that they help the organism to survive.
This process is referred to as natural selection. These advantageous mutations are transferred to the next generation. Over time, helpful mutations mount up and the result is a completely different organism (not just a variation of the original organism but completely different creature).
Charles Darwin is renowned for his theory of evolution, but he was not the only person to develop a theory of evolution. Charles Darwin was an English naturalist. He studied variation in plants and animals during a five-year cruise around the world in the 19th century.
He gives explanations about evolution in a book known as on the Origin of Species, which was publicized in 1859.
Darwin’s theory raised controversy amongst his contemporaries and his ideas were only slowly accepted, Even though a few people still do not believe in them today. The reasons why people fail to believe in his theories are:
• Darwin’s theory was the contrary of religious belief that God had made all the animals and plants on Earth
• Darwin did not have an adequate amount of evidence at the time to convince a lot of scientists
• It took 50 years after Darwin’s theory was made public to discover the way inheritance and variation worked.
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution –The theory of Natural Selection
Whereas Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is a relatively young prototype, the evolutionary worldview itself is as old as ancient times.
Ancient Greek philosophers like Anaximander hypothesized the development of life from non-life and the evolutionary descent of man from animal.
Charles Darwin basically brought something fresh to the old philosophy – a credible mechanism known as “natural selection.” Natural selection acts to safeguard and build up minor advantageous genetic mutations.
Assuming that a member of a species evolved a functional advantage, (it grew wings and learned to fly).
Its offspring would inherit that benefit and transfer it to their offspring. The inferior (deprived) members of the same species would slowly but surely die out, leaving only the superior (privileged) members of the species.
Natural selection is the conservation of a functional advantage that allows species to compete better in the undomesticated.
Natural selection is the natural equivalent to household breeding. Over the centuries, human breeders have created spectacular changes in domestic animal populations by choosing individuals to breed.
Breeders do away with unwanted traits steadily over time. Likewise, natural selection does away with inferior species progressively over time.
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution – Slowly But Surely
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is a slow but gradual process. Darwin wrote, “…Natural selection acts only by taking advantage of slight successive variations; she can never take a great and sudden leap, but must advance by short and sure, though slow steps.”
Therefore, Darwin accepted that, “If it could be established that any multifaceted organ existed, which could not probably have been fashioned by numerous, consecutive, slight modifications, my theory would completely break down.
Such a composite organ would be referred to as an “irreducibly multifaceted system”.
An irreducibly composite system is one consisted of numerous parts, all of which are essential for the system to function.
If even one part is missing, the whole system will stop working or functioning. Every individual part is fundamental.
Therefore, such a system could not have evolved gradually, part by part. The familiar mousetrap is a day to day non-biological instance of irreducible complication.
It is made up of five fundamental parts: a catch (to hold the bait), a commanding spring, a thin rod known as “the hammer,” a griping bar to lock the hammer in place, and a stage to mount the trap.
If any one of these parts is not there, the machinery will not work. Every individual part is integral. The mousetrap is irreducibly composite.
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution – A Theory In Crisis
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is a theory in crisis in view of light of the tremendous advances we’ve made in molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics over the past fifty years.
We presently know that there are in fact tens of thousands of irreducibly composite systems on the cellular level.
Specific complication pervades the microscopic biological world.
Molecular biologist Michael Denton wrote, “even though the tiniest bacterial cells are extremely small, weighing less than 10-12 grams, each is in effect a genuine micro-miniaturized factory encompassing thousands of elegantly designed pieces of complicated molecular mechanism, made up in total of one hundred thousand million atoms, far more complex than any machine built by man and entirely without equivalent in the non-living world.
And we don’t require a microscope to examine irreducible complication.
The eye, the ear and the heart are all examples of irreducible complexity, though they were not acknowledged as such in Darwin’s day.
Nonetheless, Darwin admitted, “To assume that the eye with all its matchless contrivances for adjusting the focus to diverse distances, for admitting dissimilar amounts of light, and for the alteration of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been produced by natural selection, appears quite illogical in the utmost degree