Wizkid’s Lasu transcript showing 44 carry overs.


  Wizkid's Lasu transcript showing 44 carry overs
Wizkid’s Lasu transcript showing 44 carry overs
 Wizkid's Lasu transcript showing 44 carry overs

So, some folks have gone too far by digging up Wizkid’s Lasu Result, which shows he had a poor semester in the University before heading to Lead City University, a Private University in Ibadan, Oyo State.
Apparently, Wizkid got admitted into the Lagos State University, Ojo through UME, to study Sociology in 2008, but had a really poor result in 100 level, before pulling out in 200 level.
The result shows Wizkid’s Cumulative Grade Point Average of 0.91 , which is beyond poor.. Most schools withdraw students with at least 1.5 CGPA.
He carried over 44 courses.
http://www.informationng.com/2017/07/see-wizkids-lasu-result-showing-carry-overs.html

Top ten study applications for every student


This article was written to show Top ten study applications that every serious student should have.
   top ten study applications for every student
10 smartphone apps every student must have:
1. DROPBOX: Dropbox is a home for all your photos, docs, videos, and files. Anything you add to Dropbox will automatically show up on all your computers, phones and even the Dropbox website — so you can access your stuff from anywhere. Dropbox also makes it super easy to share with your friends on campus, study partner, group partner and even your lecturer. This is one great smartphone App for students when it comes to safeguarding files and docs. Even if you accidentally spill coffee on your laptop, have no fear! Relax knowing that your stuff is safe in Dropbox and will never be lost.
2. MINT: When it comes to finance and money spending, students could be quite naive. The free Mint smartphone app for students helps you spend smarter and save more. Easily pull all your accounts, cards and investments into one place so you can track your spending, create a budget, receive bill reminders, and get customized tips for reducing fees and saving money. You can also check your credit score for free while learning how you can improve it.
3. EVERNOTE: With Evernote, all quotes, statistics and reference material pages are in one place, easily accessible and searchable by keywords, notebooks and tags. This is especially helpful when information could be coming from all sorts of places – the Web, handwritten notes, typed notes, and even photographs. You can do a whole lot of things which includes: Discussing your work with others, right within the app, sharing notebooks with other Evernote users, and if a file or note changes or gets updated, it automatically updates for everyone who has access to the notebook. What an awesome smartphone app for students which promotes tidiness and proper communication among group members.
4. MATHWAY: Got a tough algebra equation to solve, or a polynomial to factor? Having a difficult time with Calculus integrals and limits? Simply type your problem in (or point your phone camera and snap a pic!) to receive free instant answers. Mathway’s problem solving engine answers Basic Math, Pre-Algebra, Algebra, Trigonometry, Precalculus, Calculus, Statistics, Finite Math, Linear Algebra, and Chemistry questions. In addition, Mathway’s built-in graphing calculator provides detailed graphs to accompany your solutions. Mathway is a smartphone App for students, especially for those who want a maths problem solved in no time or those with phobia for calculation. It is an automated tutor that provides math homework help anywhere, anytime – no network access required!
5. COURSERA: Take courses from the best universities in the world from your Android phone! Coursera connects you with online courses from 115+ of the top universities and educational institutions in the world including Stanford, Yale, Princeton and others. Learn anytime, anywhere, in topics ranging from computer science to cooking and beyond. Browse over 1000 courses in more than 25 subject areas, from mathematics to music to medicine. Stream lecture videos online any time, or download for offline viewing. Quite an indispensable Smartphone App for students.
6. TODOIST: Manage your tasks from anywhere – even offline Add, complete, and re-schedule tasks from your phone, tablet, desktop, browser, email, smartwatch and more – even offline! Enjoy an automatic, 24/7 sync across all your devices. Plan ahead and never miss another deadline Keep track of your important deadlines with natural language due dates, start/end dates, and recurring due dates. View and organize your to-dos for the day or week ahead.
7. DICTIONARY.COM: This is a smartphone app for students which works offline – you do not need an internet connection. In addition to the trusted reference content from Dictionary.com and Thesaurus.com, this app includes: Word of the Day, Audio pronunciation, Voice search, Translator, Blog to explore over 800 fun language topics, Quiz widget to test your vocabulary with Word of the Day quizzes, Word origin, Favorite words and search history – never forget the words you learn, Spelling suggestions to get help with how words are spelled and so much more.
8. STUDIOUS: With Studious, your phone will never embarrass you in class again by going off. Forgetting about homework and tests will be a thing of the past. Some of its features include: Silencing your phone in class, Reminding you when homework and tests are due, Saving your notes and more.
9. ALDIKO BOOK READER : This is an E-library that puts thousands of books at your fingertip. The user friendly app allows you to arrange books on a shelf and even according to categories and authors. It Supports EPUB, PDF formats as well as Adobe DRM encrypted eBooks and eBooks from public libraries. it allows you adjust font size, font type, font and background colors, margin, alignment, line spacing as well as brightness to best suit your preference. Also, it allows you to import your own EPUB and PDF files into the app to read them on the go; organize your eBooks by tags and collections. Aldiko will also remember your reading position automatically, bring you back to where you left off.
10. CAMSCANNER: With Camscanner, you can Use your phone camera to scan receipts, notes, invoices, whiteboard discussions, business cards, certificates, etc. You can easily share docs in PDF or JPEG format with others via social media, email attachment or sending the doc link, Instantly print out docs in CamScanner with nearby printer and Invite friends or colleagues to view and comment on your scans in a group. (Registrants only). So with Camscanner smartphone app for students, you can hurriedly snap your mates’ jottings and have it on your smartphone instantly.
http://www.studentcosmos.com/10-smartphone-apps-every-student-must-have

88year old grandpa graduates with distinction – Horace Sheffiel


Most grandpas and grandmas are really making us proud by breaking past records in all areas of life. Grandpa sheffiel horace suprised everyone when he graduated from a college with distinction.
   88year old grandpa graduates with distinction - Horace Sheffiel
In his graduating gown and academic hat, Horace Sheffield took a snapshot with a placard that read “With God all things are possible”.
At 88 he has just attained the degree that he did not obtain in his youth. 60 years later he went back to school to fulfill an abandoned dream.
Horace Sheffield is from Barnesville, Georgia. He quit school in the 1960’s to attend and provide for his daughters. Obtaining the degree was neither a necessity nor a priority back then.
“I dropped out with 115 hours. At that time a piece of paper on a wall didn’t mean that much to me. I had my education and my brain and my heart, and I put them all to good use. But 60 years later I wanted that degree.”
The 88-year-old man traded his education for his daughters’. Sheffield was a student at Shorter University before he dropped out.
As a retired civil servant, Horace wanted to go back to school and complete his degree. However his pension would not be sufficient to see him through school.
Fatefully, he saw an article that senior citizens like himself can go to college without tuition fees, he was delighted.

      88year old grandpa graduates with distinction - Horace Sheffiel
“I’m retired and living on fixed income, and I did not think I could go to college and pay tuition. But when I saw this article that senior citizens could go to college for free, Shorter accepted me at no tuition.
The elderly scholar-thirsty man said he only had to pay $200 graduation fee.
Walking across the stage to receive his diploma, Horace was accompanied by his tutor, Amanda Brannock. Horace received a standing ovation as he proceeded to the stage.
The old man never fails to thank Amanda for her role in his academic accomplishment.
“She wrote out my assignments and told me what to do and she expected me to do it,”
“She expected me to make straight As and I did it. I wrote two papers a week and then had the test… Without her I would not have this diploma today.”
    88year old grandpa graduates with distinction - Horace Sheffiel

Horace obtained his Bachelor of Science through online courses. He would write his weekly papers and test in long-hand. Then Amanda’s job would be to translate it and submit them online. He studied Christian Studies.
She would take her own computer and printer to his house for him to use for classwork.
Brannock and Sheffield were acquaintances from church. Both share a similar academic moment in the past. Amanda who has no degree yet, left school at some point because of financial constraints.
Calling him “a sweetheart”, the nice woman said it was her pleasure to help him see his dream come true. Tutoring Horace took as long as 2 years and Amanda was devoted all through it.
“He’s inspired me to keep going and I hope I inspired him to keep going.”
Horace Sheffield hopes to return the favor by walking across the stage someday to get her degree.
“He’s insisting that he walk across the stage with me when I get to graduate.”
   88year old grandpa graduates with distinction - Horace Sheffiel
https://answersafrica.com/horace-sheffield-88-year-college.html

9 ways to read & remember


This article was written to show you 9 comon techniques that you can use to remember what you read.
9 ways to & remember
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It is one thing to read a book and another to remember everything you read. A lot of motivation is lost when you read a book only to find out that you cannot recall what you read even at the shortest period of time. It is a common event among many students and this has led to the conclusion, “If I read, I’ll forget because I have low retentive memory” . This statement is however not true! Yes, no one has low retentive memory.
While some forget everything they read, others can recall it easily. Have you ever wondered why this happens? A lot of students who fail examinations have reported they do read but forget everything they read which is why I have decided to write this article. Trust me, if you can follow this article to the end and put the guidelines into action, your retentive power will surely increase.
1. READ TO KNOW AND UNDERSTAND
Your mindset when reading speaks on whether you will remember or forget what you are reading. A question you should ask is, ” What should my mindset be while reading? “.
The answer to this question is the key to unlock your hidden power of remembrance. Your aim of reading should be to gain knowledge. You may want to ask, “Am I not aiming to gain knowledge while reading? Of course you are!. But, you are gaining knowledge only to pass examination!
Many reader who are yet to discover their hidden power of remembrance have the mindset of reading in order to pass their examination which makes them to cram rather than understand the content of the book. As a result, they forget everything they read immediately after the examination which has led to a common saying among students when you ask them questions,
“I was taught last term/session, I have forgotten”.
“Therefore, change your mindset while reading. Read to gain knowledge, make sure you understand the concept of what you are reading and don’t just read to pass an examination”
2. DO NOT SKIP A SENTENCE
Students regard some of the information in a book as “story” and decide to skip them. This is common especially when reading for examination. Before you can understand and remember what you read, just have to read enough. The secret is, “The more you read, the more you understand and the more you remember” . You cannot read four sentences and expect to know five. So, neglect the belief of regarding some of the content of a book as story because there are hidden secrets in every sentence!
3. WRITE IT DOWN
Research has proven that writing down what you are reading helps you to remember more. After reading for several minutes, try to write down everything you have read without looking at it(Writing it in your own word is allowed). This will help you to know the part you don’t understand, so you can go over it again. This is a very effective method which I have been using for quite a long time and I am sure it will work for you!.

  1. EXPLAIN IT TO YOURSELF
    If you have been forgetting what you read, it is because you either crammed it or you did not understand. After reading for a while, try to explain to yourself, it will help you to know if you really understand the concept of what you are reading.
  2. TAKE A BREAK
    Readings for 10hours without taking a break does not make you a bookworm but I’ll rather call it a waste of time. Yes, a waste of time!. Your brain is a biological organ and not a machine, it also gets tired. Effective reading habit should be cultivated as it is more yielding. When I say effective reading, after reading for 1-2hours, you tend to lose concentration when your brain gets stressed. Don’t force yourself to continue reading but just take reading but just take a 10-30minutes break depending on you until you feel relaxed and good to go again. After the break, try to recall everything you have read before the break, then you can proceed with your reading.
  3. USE MNEMONICS AND SONGS
    Mnemonic is a technique used to remember what you read very quickly and accurately. This is especially used to remember listed items. You can easily remember the activity series of metals by using the mnemonic- “King Nelson Can Make A Zoo For Some…” where the letters in Capital form represent the symbol for the metal which are “K-Potassium, N-Sodium, Ca-Calcium, M-Magnessium, A-Aluminium, Z-Zinc, F-Iron, S-Tin…” It is very easy to know the mnemonic than knowing how to list the metals using their names.
    Music is also efficient method. You’ll agree with me that most of the rhymes your we’re taught still sticks to your brain because of the use of music. If you were not taught like that, you’ll have forgotten everything.
  4. CULTIVATE GROUP READING HABIT
    Though personal reading is necessary, group reading is more effective. Yes, it is!. Try group reading, discuss with friends, explain it to one another, argue with them and you will definitely remember more.
  5. DO A REVIEW
    Revise everything you have read after some days. It help you to recall the concept of what you read. Don’t forget the scope behind it “The more you read, the more you understand and the more you remember”. So, read it again, again and again until you cannot forget again.
  6. MAKE USE OF WHAT YOU READ
    The more you cultivate the habit of using what you read, the more you remember. English language for example, if you fail to make use of the laws while speaking with people, you will definitely forget them!. Have you wondered why you can read the National Anthem which you were taught in Primary school but cannot remember what you were taught in biology last year? It is because you make use of The National Anthem everything but not what you were taught in biology. So, if you read, make use of the content.

http://classicinfospot.blogspot.co.ke/2017/05/10-proven-ways-to-read-effectively-and.html?m=1

why a christain university is expensive


Top 5 reasons why church or Christians universities are more expensive
Top 5 reasons why Christian universities owned by churches are too expensive for the poor
I have been reading lots of articles where people come online to criticize Christians or churches for making their private universities too expensive or inaccessible to the poor in the society including the members of the so called churches . Some even go as far as calling powerful men of God like papa David Oyedepo fraudsters (well may God forgive them ). In this post we are going to be discussing 5 possible reasons why Christian universities are expensive because according to newton’s third law of motion action and reaction are equal and opposite meaning that for every cause there is a reason .
📚
Written by By Ife Olaleye:
Source of capital:
There has been so much buzz about Church
universities being expensive in Nigeria and I
would like to address some of this
controversies mostly using Covenant
University as a case study.
Tithes/Offerings are used to build Church
Universities ? This seems to be a widely
asserted theory. This is partly not true
because most Churches don’t exactly use
Tithes/Offerings for building church
universities but create special donations for
that purpose. Usually, the initial university
capital projects are funded with these
donations. We have to remember that the core
mandate of any church isn’t not to create
universities but to preach the gospel of Jesus
and help the poor and that is done with
tithes/offering to establish outreaches, pay
pastoral salaries, build new churches etc.
Donations can’t sustain recurrent expenditure:
while ‘excited’ members would usually agree
to pay donations for the initial financial
responsibility of the universities. No church
would be able to get its church members to
continually pay for its recurrent expenditure. In
fact if any of these church schools were to try
and choose continual donations as an
alternative to ‘High’ tuition fees the next thing
you would see are private university lecturers
going on strike.

Profit: Are Church universities profitable? I do not
believe any sane investor or business man
would venture into the tertiary education
sector with the aim of making profit. There is
a reason why you wouldn’t find Otedola or
Dangote investing in education. If you do your
research properly you would find that till
today Covenant university hasn’t made any
profit for its proprietors. Let us examine the
revenue vs expenditure of Covenant university
for example. The Covenant university tuition
(undergraduate) ranges between
600,000-800,000 depending on level/program
but I would base it on 700k. There are about
7,000 students on campus at a given time so I
multiply 700,000 by 7,000=4.9 billion. So the
university’s revenue from tuition fees is about
4.9 billion.
When considering expenditure I would like to
keep the value projections conservative. I
believe Covenant University’s wage bill to be
around 500 million/month but I would
calculate using 400 million since that is the
average wage bill for a Nigerian university. So
400 million x 12 months= 4.8 billion. I
currently don’t know how much CU pays to get
electricity but reports had it that in 2012 the
university spent 700 million naira on
electricity. I would deliberately exclude
expenditures like research grant, conference
support, Infrastructure, field trips, medical
services, internet provision e.t.c because I do
not have real data to conclude how much they
gulp yearly. So using just wage bill+Electricity,
the university has spent 5.5 billion when the
tuition fee is about 4.8 billion. This proves the
former NUC president, Peter Okebukola right
when he said that ‘’Church universities were
being too dependent on the Church’’. Also, the
VC of Crawford did buttress the fact that the
proprietor base still donates 500 million yearly
to Crawford as subsidy. If these subsidies
weren’t in place Church universities would
have been more expensive that secular ones.

Assumed wealth of the Church: there is a
saying in Yoruba land that ‘’the chicken
sweats but the feathers won’t let you know’’.
Would you believe that Oyedepo nearly missed
his own deadline for the establishment of the
first two halls of residence in Covenant
University? because donations weren’t coming
forth, until God miraculously provided.
‘Expensive’ tuition isn’t unique to Pentecostal
Churches : whilst many choose to assault Pa.
Adeboye and Bishop Oyedepo for charging
high tuition fees. It is important to note that
even Orthodox churches which are known not
to be ‘’prosperity conscious’’ charge within
the same bracket e.g Bowen(Baptist), ECWA
(Bingham), Godfrey Okoye(Catholic), Adventist
(Babcock), JABU(CAC), Methodist(Wesley)
e.t.c
Expensive tuition isn’t unique to Church
universities alone; Church universities are
ranked to be generally good with Covenant
University averagely in top three on the two
out of four most reputable rankings in the
world-Webometrics and Times higher
education. However Islamic schools that are
not in the top 50 universities in Nigeria but
also charge about half a million(e.g Crescent)
which is about the same thing CU charges.
The underlining purpose for creating Church
schools ; This is very important, the creation of
church schools isn’t to actually teach physics
and chemistry, but to create a spiritual
revolution. Take that spiritual revolution away
from CU, then it is by no means different from
Afebabalola university. Therefore, if you are a
committed member of your church you are
already a member of that movement. For
instance I am not a living faith member, but
by attending CU I have joined myself to the
spiritual movement of the church.
http://www.nairaland.com/3623074/why-church-universities-expensive

Physiological variations


      Physiological variations
Genetics deals with how a few characteristics are transferred from generation to generation, i.e. heredity, or inheritance. Just like the majority of living organisms, human beings exhibit variation.

If you consider roughly any characteristic, you will discover differences between different people or other animals or plants in a population. There are two forms of variation:continuous and discontinuous variation.

Features that show continuous variation differ in a general way, with a wide range, and a lot of intermediate values between the extremes.

As a matter of fact, if you consider a large enough model from a population, perhaps plotting frequency as a histogram or as a frequency polygon, you would discover that the majority of the values are close to the average (mean), and farthest range of values are essentially to a certain extent rare.

Height is an example of a continuously variation in so far as you take into consideration a constant sample, for instance a huge number of people of a specific age and sex.

It is normally difficult to give a straightforward explanation of the genetic basis for these continuously variation due to the fact that they result from a combination of genetic factors in addition to environmental influences.

Characteristics that exhibit discontinuous variation fall into a few very different classes. The capability to roll the tongue, and blood groups, are examples of discontinuous variation.

These characteristics can be explained much more simply by straightforward rules of genetics and are less likely to be affected by other factors.

Human physical appearance is referred to as the outward phenotype or look of human beings. There are countless variations in human phenotypes, though society minimizes the variation to different categories.

Physical appearances of humans, especially those characters which are known as crucial for physical beauty, are believed by anthropologists to considerably affect the development of personality and social relations. Humans are extremely sensitive to their physical appearance.

A few differences in human appearance are genetic, others are due to age, lifestyle or disease, and many are the result of personal beautification.

Physiological differences

Humans are dispersed across the globe with exception of Antarctica, and form an extremely erratic species. In adults, average weight differs from around 40 kilos for the smallest and major lightly built tropical people to around 80 kilos for the heavier northern peoples.

Size as well differs between the sexes, the sexual dimorphism in humans is more pronounced that that of chimpanzees, but less the sort of dimorphism found in gorillas.

The colouration of skin, hair and eyes as well differs greatly, with darker pigmentation authority in tropical climates and lighter in Polar Regions.

Factors Affecting Physical Appearance

A lot of factors are considered pertinent in relation to the physical appearance of humans.

• Genetic, ethnic affiliation, geographical ancestry

• Height, body weight, skin tone, body hair, sexual organs, moles, birthmarks, freckles, hair color, hair texture, eye color, eye shape, nose shape example nasal bridge, ears shape- example earlobes and body shape.

• Body deformations, mutilations and other variations like amputations, scars, burns and wounds

Causes of variation

A few of the characteristics possessed by an individual in a population can be said to be inherited. This means that they obtained from the past generation. These characteristics are transferred from generation to generation in a rather conventional way, due to sexual reproduction.

Sexual reproduction as well introduces an atom of unpredictability, so that variation is brought about in a population.

These two approximately contradictory factors: reliable inheritance of characteristics from parents, and variation that exist within a population – are indispensable to the perception of the process of evolution.

Three examples of physiological variations that exist between human being are:

a)Ability to roll tongue

There are two classes of tongue-rolling ability:

Rollers and non-rollers.

b) Ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)

C) Blood groups ABO classifications

There are 4 classes of blood group: A, B, O and AB.

The ABO blood group system

The antigens for the ABO system are a group of glycoproteins. Frankly attached to the red cell membrane is a protein.

At a definite segment of the protein is bonded a type of 5-carbon sugar, fucose. These fucose sugar molecules are known to as the H antigen, and interact with an antiserum known as anti-H.

The production of antigen H is controlled by a detached locus from that of the ABO blood group, but antigen H is closely linked with the ABO system.

The majority of people who possess an allele for blood type O have antigen H, and ought to more correctly be classified as blood type H. Therefore, the most correct way to explain this blood group system is the ABH system.

There are some individuals, who do not have the H antigen and just possess a naked protein chain hanging aloof their red cells. This is as well known as the Bombay blood type.

The frequency of the Bombay allele is anywhere around .0066, so homozygotes are very rare. This allele is normally represented as the normal H allele is dominant to it.

The allele for blood group A makes it possible for another sugar to be attached to the antigen H, fucose, and sugar molecule. This attached sugar is N-acetylgalactosamine (NAG), and is the A antigen.

The allele for blood group B makes a molecule of simple galactose sugar to be attached to the fucose molecule. This is the B antigen. The O allele causes the H antigen to remain unmodified.

People who are AA homozygotes or AO heterozygotes have mainly the A antigen, with typically a little free H antigen. In fact there are 4 dissimilar A alleles, the variations that exists between them are poorly understood, but which appear to vary primarily in the amount of H antigen that gets converted to A antigen.

So, they make differences in the strengths of the antigen-antiserum reactions to occur.

Nevertheless, specific antisera can be made to at least few of the 4 different blood groups subtypes, so there ought to be a number of differences in the actual antigen as well.

Most non-African populations have only A1 and A2 alleles, but Africans can also have Aint and Abantu alleles.

People who are BB or BO have more often than not the B antigen, with a little free H antigen. There is no chief variability in the B blood type.

People who are AB heterozygotes possess both the A and B antigens. Every one of the cell will possess more or less half of its H antigens customized into A antigens and about half customized into B antigens.

This showcases the phenomenon of codominance. Neither A nor B is dominant to the other, so the products of both alleles can exist in a heterozygote. Both A and B are dominant to O.

An individual does not usually make antibodies to any antigen which he or she personally has. The galactose and fucose sugars are widespread enough in nature, especially in disease carrying organisms, so people produce antibodies to these sugars if they are not part of their personal antigen system.

Consequently, everybody who is not blood group A will make anti-A antibodies. Everyone who is not blood group B will make anti-B antibodies.

Approximately nobody produces anti-H antibodies, but you can extract an anti-H antiserum from the seeds of the widespread gorse plant.

The major significance of the ABH blood group system is in blood matching for transfusions. If the donor and recipient are not matched in terms of their ABH blood types then the antibodies in the recipient’s plasma may result to an agglutination reaction of the red cells from the donor.

This is a serious situation for the patient. Noteworthy though is that people with blood type AB possess no antibodies in their plasma, so they can in fact receive blood from anybody. This is why they are known as universal recipients.

Normally, the small amount of antibodies introduced with the plasma from the donor’s blood doesn’t lead to a very severe reaction in the recipient to cause any problems, even though it is still better to match blood types exactly.

Noteworthy as well is the fact that blood type O individuals have no A or B antigen. This means that nobody’s antibodies can agglutinate their cells. This is why type O people are frequently called universal donors, although you may infrequently have problems with the antibodies in the plasma of type O blood.

A lot of other serum proteins, red cell proteins, blood groups, and antigen systems exist. What we have described here is a few of the main well known ones.

A Gene Mutation is an extremely rare occurrence really. A mutation in a single inheritable characteristic (gene) is normally less likely than one in a million, but immediately it has happened, it might be passed on to the next generation, along the same lines as other inherited characteristics.

Nevertheless, not every individual carrying mutation survives; the majority of them have been found to be harmful, so that the organisms carrying them are at a disadvantage. In the wild, that type of organism is not likely to survive.

However, a few valuable mutations confer an advantage, and others are neutral. They are of no advantage or disadvantage – in the slightest till there is a few reason for selection of adapted types to take place.

This may be a different reason for variation within a population. In fact, some variable forms resulting from mutation that are beneficial can spread through a population by natural selection, and this might have the eventual effect of altering a population to a great extent that it varies from its original form – leading to the evolution of a fresh species.

Chromosome mutations may as well lead to an alteration in the number of chromosomes included into the sex cells. A child produced as a consequence may possess, for an example, an extra chromosome, or an extra part of a chromosome affixed to the normal set.

Down’s syndrome results in a child who possesses 47 chromosomes instead of the normal 46 per cell.

Genetics: the science of heredity


     Genetics: the science of heredity
Biology Of Heredity (Genetics)-Transmission And Expression Of Characteristics In Organisms

A) Hereditary Variations: Characters that can be transferred from parents to offsprings-from generation to generation like skin colour, eye and hair, blood group, sickle cell, shape of face and nose

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the science of heredity. Heredity is the transfer of characteristics from one generation to the next. It is the reason why offspring resemble their parents. For instance, we know that a tall mother and a tall father are liable to have children that are tall.

It as well explains why cats constantly give birth to kittens and never puppies. Geneticists (scientists who study genetics) are interested in finding out two things regarding this observation.

First, what is there in the cells of a person’s body that signals the body to become tall instead of short? Second, how are the signals for “tallness” transferred from parent to offspring, from one generation to the next?

The process of heredity takes place in the midst of every living thing including animals, plants, bacteria, protists and fungi. The study of heredity is known as genetics and scientists that learn heredity are called geneticists.

Through heredity, living things take over traits from their parents. Traits are physical characteristics. You bear a resemblance to your parents due to the fact that you inherited your hair and skin color, nose shape, height, and other traits from them.

Cells are the fundamental unit of structure and function of every living thing. Small biochemical structures inside every cell known as genes transmit traits from one generation to the other.

Genes are made of a chemical known as DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Genes are strung jointly to structure long chains of DNA in structures referred to as chromosomes.

Genes are similar to blueprints for building a house, apart from the fact that they bear the plans for building cells, tissues, organs, and bodies. They have the instructions for manufacturing the thousands of chemical building blocks in the body.

These building blocks are known as proteins. Proteins are made of smaller units known as amino acids. Differences in genes give rise to the building of diverse amino acids and proteins.

These differences give rise to individuals that possess various traits like hair color or blood types.

A gene offers only the prospective for the development of a trait. The way this potential is achieved depends partially on the interaction of the gene with other genes. But it as well depends partly on the environment.

For instance, a person may have a genetic tendency toward being overweight. But the person’s real weight will depend on such environmental factors like the kinds of food the person eats and the amount of exercise that person does.

The history of Genetics

Humans have known about hereditary characteristics for thousands of years. That knowledge has been used for the improvement of domestic plants and animals. Until the late nineteenth century, however, that knowledge had been obtained through trial-and-error experiments.

The contemporary science of genetics started with the pioneering work of the Austrian monk and botanist Gregor Mendel (1822–1884).

Words you may come across and their meaning

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): Molecules that make up chromosomes and on which genes are situated.

Dominant gene: The state or genetic trait that will constantly convey itself when present as part of a pair of genes in a chromosome.

Gene: A section of a DNA molecule that carries instructions for the formation, functioning, and transmission of specific traits from one generation to another.

Heredity: The transfer of characteristics from parents to offspring.

Nucleotide: A group of atoms that exists in a DNA molecule.

Proteins: Large molecules that is crucial to the structure and functioning of all living cells.

Recessive gene: The state or genetic trait that can put across itself only when two genes, one from both parents, are available and act as a kind of code for creating the trait, but will not articulate itself when paired with a dominant gene.

Triad: This is as well referred to as codon; group of three nucleotides that carry a particular message for a cell.

Through heredity, variations demonstrated by individuals can build up and cause a number of species to evolve. The study of heredity in biology is known as genetics, which includes the field of epigenetic.

In humans, eye color is an example of an inherited characteristic: characteristics transferred from parents to offspring. An individual might inherit the “brown-eye trait” from one of the parents. Inherited traits are restricted by genes and the complete set of genes within an organism’s genome is known as its genotype.

The entire set of observable traits of the structure and behavior of an organism is called its phenotype. These traits arise from the interaction of its genotype with the environment. As a result, a lot of aspects of an organism’s phenotype are not inherited.

For instance, suntanned skin comes from the interaction between a person’s phenotype and sunlight; thereby, suntans are not transferred to people’s children.

Nevertheless, a few people auburn more easily than others, as a result of differences in their genotype: a conspicuous example is people with the inherited trait of albinism, who do not auburn at all and are very sensitive to sunburn.

Heritable traits are transferred from one generation to the other through DNA, a molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a longpolymer that is made up of four types of bases, which are exchangeable.

The sequence of bases along a specific DNA molecule specifies the genetic information: this is equivalent to a sequence of letters spelling out a passage of text.

Prior to the cell division through mitosis, the DNA is copied, so that every one of the resultant two cells will inherit the DNA progression.

A segment of a DNA molecule that specifies a particular functional unit is known as a gene; different genes have different progressions of bases.

Within cells, the long strands of DNA form condensed structures known as chromosomes.

Organisms inherit genetic material from their parents in the form of homologous chromosomes, containing a unique amalgamation of DNA progressions that code for genes.

The definite location of a DNA sequence within a chromosome is referred to as a locus. If the DNA sequence at a specific locus varies between individuals, the diverse forms of this sequence are known as alleles.

DNA sequences can alter through mutations, giving rise to fresh alleles. If a mutation takes place within a gene, the fresh allele may have effect on the trait that the gene controls, changing the phenotype of the organism.

Although this simple correspondence between an allele and a trait works in a few cases, the majorities of traits are more compounds and are restricted by multiple interacting genes within and among organisms.

Developmental biologists recommend that composite interactions in genetic networks and communication among cells can result to heritable variations that may underlay a number of of the mechanics in developmental plasticity and canalization.

B) Mendel Works In Genetics: Mendelian Traits, Mendelian Law And Mendelian Experiment

Mendelian laws of inheritance are statements about the manner specific characteristics are transmitted from one generation to another in an organism. The laws were derived by the Austrian monk Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) as a result of experiments he carried out in the period from about 1857 to 1865.

For his experiments, Mendel made use of ordinary pea plants.

Among the traits that Mendel examined were the color of a plant’s flowers, their position on the plant, the shape and color of pea pods, the shape and color of seeds, and the length of plant stems.

Mendel’s experiment was to transfer pollen (which is composed of male sex cells) from the stamen (the male reproductive organ) of one pea plant to the pistil (female reproductive organ) of a second pea plant.

As a plain example of this sort of experiment, presume that one takes pollen from a pea plant with red flowers and makes use of it to fertilize a pea plant with white flowers.

What Mendel intended to find out is what color the flowers would be in the offspring of these two plants. In a second series of experiments, Mendel examined the changes that took place in the second generation.

view
That is, assuming two offspring of the red/white mating (“cross”) are themselves mated. What color will the flowers be in this second generation of plants?

As a result of his experiments, Mendel was able to come out with three generalizations about the way characteristics or traits are transmitted from one generation to the next in pea plants.

Words you ought to Know

Allele: One of two or more forms a gene may exist in.

Dominant: An allele whose expression overshadows the effect of a second form of the same gene.

Gamete: A reproductive cell.

Heterozygous: A state in which two alleles for a given gene differ from each other.

Homozygous: A state in which two alleles for a given gene are the same.

Recessive: An allele whose effects are covered in offspring by the dominant allele in the pair.

Mendel’s first law: The Law of Segregation

Mendel’s law of segregation explains what occurs at the alleles that constitute a gene during formation of gametes. For instance, suppose that a pea plant is composed of a gene for flower color in which the two alleles code for red.

One way to symbolize that condition is to write RR, which indicates that both alleles (R and R) code for the color red. An additional gene might possess a diverse combination of alleles, as in Rr.

In this situation, the symbol R stands for red color and the r for “not red” or, in this situation, white. Mendel’s law of segregation says that the alleles that constitute “a gene” break up from each other, or segregate, during the formation of gametes.

That law can be represented by simple equations, like:

RR → R + R or Rr → R + r

Mendel’s second Law: Law of independent assortment

Mendel’s second law-the law of independent assortment refers to the fact that any plant contains a lot of different kinds of genes. One gene determines the colour of the flower, a second gene determines length of stem, a third gene determines shape of pea pods, and so on.

Mendel observed that the manner in which alleles from dissimilar genes divide and then recombine is unconnected to other genes. That is, assuming that a plant contains genes for color (RR) and for shape of pod (TT).

Then Mendel’s second law says that the two genes will segregate independently, as shown below:

RR → R + R and TT → T + T

Mendel’s third law: Dominance

Mendel’s third law takes care of issue of dominance. Assuming that a gene is composed of an allele for red color (R) and an allele for white color (r).

What colour will the flower of the final plant take? Mendel found out that in every pair of alleles, one is more likely to be expressed than the other.

In other words, one allele is dominant and the other allele is recessive.

In the example of an Rr gene, the flowers produced will be red for the fact that the allele R is dominant over the allele r.

view also
MENDELIAN LAWS OF INHERITANCE
.
PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIATIONS

hydra


classification of hydra
Scientific classification

Kingdom – Animalia

Subkingdom – Eumetazoa

Phylum – Cnidaria

Subphylum – Medusozoa

Class – Hydrozoa

Subclass – Leptolinae

Order – Anthomedusae

Suborder – Capitata

Family – Hydridae

Genus – Hydra Linnaeus

Motion and locomotion of Hydra

Whenever Hydra are startled or attacked, they retract their tentacles to form small buds. They can as well retract their entire body column into a small gelatinous sphere. Hydra usually reacts in the same manner irrespective of the direction of the stimulus, and this might be as a result of the simplicity of the nerve net.

The sessile or sedentary behavior of Hydra

Hydra is usually sedentary or sessile but can on occasional basis transport itself swiftly particularly when hunting for food. They normally do this by bending over and fastening themselves to the substrate with the mouth and tentacles and after that let go of their feet, which makes available the typical attachment.

This process in hydra is referred to as looping. The body subsequently bends over and makes a fresh position of attachment with the foot.

Through this process of “looping” or “somersaulting”, a Hydra can be in motion quite a lot of inches (c. 100 mm) on a daily basis. Hydra may also move about through amoeboid movement of their bases or by merely coming off the substrate and hovering away through the water current.

Reproduction and life cycle of Hydra

When there is a lot of food, are plentiful, loads of Hydra reproduce asexually by generating buds in the body wall. These buds grow to be small adults and merely breaking away when they are full-grown.

When conditions are unsympathetic, habitually before winter or in poor feeding and nutritional situations, some Hydra undergo sexual reproduction. Inflammations in the body wall expand into either a straightforward ovary testes.

The testes discharge free-swimming gametes into the water, and these possibly may fertilize the egg in the ovary of another individual hydra.

The fertilized eggs ooze a hard outer coating, and, as the fully developed hydra dies, these dormant eggs get discharged to the bottom of the lake or pond to wait for favorable conditions, at which point they hatch into nymph Hydra. Some type of Hydra like Hydra circumcincta and Hydra viridissima, are hermaphrodites and may at the same time bring into being both testes and an ovary.

Various members of the Hydrozoa pass through a body alteration from a polyp to an adult form known as a medusa. Nevertheless, all Hydra, regardless of being hydrozoans, hang about as polyps all the way through their lives.

Feeding of Hydra

The feeding in Hydra is majorly on minute aquatic invertebrates like as Daphnia and Cyclops.

When feeding, Hydra extends their body to their highest length and after that little by little extends their tentacles. In spite of their plain construction, the tentacles of Hydra are amazingly extensible and can be extended up to four to five times the length of the entire body.

Just immediately they are completely extended, the tentacles are bit by bit maneuvered more or less waiting to make contact with an appropriate prey animal. Once they come in contact, nematocysts on the tentacle shoot into the prey, and the tentacle then coils over the prey.

Just within a space of 30 seconds, the majority of the rest tentacles would have already united in the attack to suppress and hold back the besieged prey. Just about two minutes, the tentacles will have bordered the prey and stirred it into the opened mouth opening.

In a space of about ten minutes, the prey will have been completely engulfed into the body cavity, and digestion will have been on track. Hydra is able to elongate its body wall by a long way in order to digest prey that is two times its size.

After two or three days, the hard to digest parts of the prey will be released through the contractions of the aperture in the mouth.

The feeding attitude of Hydra illustrates the cleverness of what seem to be just a mere nervous system.

A few species of Hydra occur in a joint relationship with a combination of types of unicellular algae. The algae are sheltered from predators by Hydra and, in return, photosynthetic products from the algae are valuable as a source of food to Hydra.

Chemistry, the environment and the industry


    Chemistry, the environment and the industry
Is chemistry and industry any help to our environment or is it an obstacle?

Environmental problems and concerns like climate change, water pollution and renewable energy constantly constitute the headlines of news in radio, television, newspapers, magazines and even online, everywhere. In fact the issue has come to stay as an unavoidable part of our day to day life. A lot of people consider chemistry and the chemical industry as injurious to the environment. Nevertheless, numerous innovative progresses and scientific researches in the area of chemistry are assisting us to build up additional environment friendly materials and applications, whilst safeguarding the worth and the standard of living we look forward to.

Down the years, the chemistry and chemical industry and the public at large discovered the dangerous effects of a few chemical practices and how essential it is to ensure the safety of our environment. Previously the awareness regarding the harmful effect of our advanced way of life is very minimal. What was more perceived then is the positive impact of technology and advancement of manufacturing helpful innovative materials and products.

Research conducted in the field of biological sciences and chemistry has exposed that industrial procedures in chemistry and petrochemistry could contribute in discovering solutions to environmental problems like the climate change, waste management, recycling, and energy efficiency and so on. If there was nothing like “chemistry”, it would have been very difficult to fully comprehend these environmental problems let alone providing solutions to getting the issues resolved more ways.

Nowadays, chemists and petrochemists are conducting research into discovering fresh methods that are more sustainable and environmentally friendly and at the same time preserving the advancement of our economy and our industry. Examples incorporate:

• Biofuels: Biofuels is the transportation fuel resulting from biomass. There are many product of biomass like sugar cane, rape seed, corn, straw, wood, animal and agriculture remains and waste product can be changed into fuels for transport;

• Bioplastics: This is the process through which plastic materials are produced with the help of natural sources like plants that are biodegradable and which would constitute no environmental hazard;

• Insulation: The study of chemistry had made possible improved insulating materials to facilitate higher energy-efficient homes and buildings;

• Less heavy plastic composites that have also been made possible through technological advancement help to minimize cars and airplanes propensity to consume fuel;

• Fuel cells: Fuel cells are another alternative to fossil fuels. When it is utilized as fuel in cars or motorbikes, the hydrogen fuel cells manufactures water vapour as an alternative for exhaust gases;

• New lighting technologies: Technology like Organic Light Emitting Diodes – OLEDS which produce more light with less electricity;

• Both Wind turbines and solar paneling: depend on materials manufactured by the chemical industry. The metal blades of wind turbines have to a great extent been replaced by blades that are manufactured with a fibre glass-reinforced polyester to withstand a harsh weather condition.

The Society has the tendency of considering every artificial chemical as dreadful and all that is natural as good. The mere fact that something is natural does not automatically mean that it is fine for the health or the environment or hazardous if it’s an artificially made chemical. The burning of wood for an example appears to be natural but the smoke that is given out when a wood is burnt can be detrimental the health and environment just like every other processes of burning.

Activation energy


    Activation energy
Only a minute portion of the collisions between reactant molecules change the reactants into the products of the chemical reaction. This can be understood by considering the reaction between ClNO2 and NO.

ClNO2(g) + NO(g) NO2(g) + ClNO(g)

During the process of this reaction, a chlorine atom is transmitted from one nitrogen atom to another. To enable the reaction to occur, the nitrogen atom in NO have to bump with the chlorine atom in ClNO2

The reaction will not take place if the oxygen end of the NO molecule collides with the chlorine atom on ClNo2

It will also not take place if an oxygen atom from among the 2 atoms on ClNO2 collides with the nitrogen atom on NO.

An additional factor that determines if a reaction will take place is the energy the molecules carry or bears the moment they come in contact for collision. It is not every molecule that possesses the same kinetic energy. This is significant for the reason that the kinetic energy molecules bear the moment they bump is the most important basis of the energy that ought to be invested in a reaction to make it to occur.

The total typical free energy for the reaction between ClNO2 and NO is favorable.

ClNO2(g) + NO(g) NO2(g) + ClNO(g) Go = -23.6 kJ/mol
But, prior to the reactants being converted into products, the free energy of the system ought to conquer the activation energy for the reaction.

All molecules have a definite minimum quantity of energy. The energy can either be in the form of Kinetic Energy and/or Potential Energy. When molecules come in contact with one another, the kinetic energy of the molecules can be made use of to elongate, twist, and eventually break bonds, resulting to chemical reactions. If molecules are travelling too unhurriedly with a small kinetic energy, or they collided with an inappropriate direction, they will not lead to reaction and would merely bounce away from each other. Nevertheless, if the molecules are travelling at a swift speed sufficient to cause a successful collision orientation, in a manner that the kinetic energy on collision is higher than the minimum energy barrier, then a reaction will take place. The minimum energy obstruction that ought to be achieved for a chemical reaction to occur is known as the activation energy; Ea. Ea is normally in units of kilojoules per mole

The collision theory


 The collision theory
The collision theory states that gaseous state chemical reactions takes place when two gas molecules smash together with enough kinetic energy. The smallest amount of energy that is needed for a thriving collision, which leads to a successful reaction, is referred to as the activation energy. Consequently, only a fraction of collisions result to successful reactions.

The collision theory is derived from the kinetic theory of gases. Thus we are only dealing with gaseous chemical reactions. Because of this, the ideal gas assumptions are applied. Moreover, we are as well making assumptions that:

  1. All the reacting molecules are moving through space in a straight line.
  2. All molecules are inflexible spheres.

  3. The reactions being discussed only takes place between two molecules.

  4. The molecules ought to collide with one another.

In the end, the collision theory of gases offers us the rate constant for bimolecular gaseous reactions; it is equal to the rate of winning collisions. The rate of successful collisions is proportional to the small part of successful collisions multiplied by the general collision frequency.

Collision Frequency

The rate or frequency at which molecules collide is referred to as the collision frequency, Z. The unit of collision frequency is collisions/ unit of time. Given a box of molecules A and B, the collision frequency between molecules A and B is given by:

Successful Collisions

To enable a successful collision to take place, the molecules of the reactant ought to collide with sufficient kinetic energy to break original bonds and be able to form fresh bonds to turn into the molecules of the product. Therefore, it is referred to as the activation energy for the reaction; it is as well normally regarded as the energy barrier.

The portion of collisions that possess sufficient energy to exceed the activation barrier is denoted as:

The tiny proportion of successful collisions is directly proportional to the temperature and inversely proportional to the activation energy of the reaction

acid base indicators


   acid base indicators

Weak Acids and Bases can be used as Acid-Base indicator. An acid-base indicator is a weak acid or a weak base. An Indicator acid base indicator does not change color from pure acid to pure alkali solution at particular hydrogen ion concentration, but to a certain extent, color change takes place over a range of hydrogen ion concentrations. This range is termed the color change interval and is articulated as a pH range.

The use of acid base indicators

Weak acids are titrated in the presence of indicators that alter a little in alkaline situations. Weak bases ought to be titrated in the presence of indicators that alter their colours under a little acidic condition.

Popular acid-base indicators:

Examples of acid-base indicators are:

• Thymol blue

• tropeolin OO

• methyl yellow

• methyl orange

• bromphenol blue

• bromcresol green

• methyl red

• bromthymol blue

• phenol red

• neutral red

• phenolphthalein

• thymolphthalein

• alizarin yellow

• tropeolin O

• nitramin

• trinitrobenzoic acid.

Common Acid-Base Indicators

Indicator * pH * Range * Qty per 10 ml * Acid * Base

Thymol Blue 1.2-2.8 1-2 drops 0.1% solution in aqueous red yellow

Pentamethoxy red 11.2-2.3 1 drop 0.1% soln. in 70% alcohol red-violet colorless

Tropeolin OO 1.3-3.2 1 drop 1% of aqueous solution red Yellow
Tropeolin OO 1.3-3.2 1 drop 1% of aqueous solution red Yellow

2,4-Dinitrophenol 2.4-4.0 1-2 drops 0.1% solution in 50% alcohol colourless Yellow

Methyl yellow 2.9-4.0 1 drop 0.1% solution in 90% alcohol red Yellow

Methyl orange 3.1-4.4 1 drop 0.1% aqueous solution red Orange

Bromphenol blue 3.0-4.6 1 drop 0.1% aqueous solution yellow blue-violet

Tetrabromphenol blue 3.0-4.6 1 drop 0.1% aqueous solution yellow blue

Alizarin sodium sulfonate 3.7-5.2 1 drop 0.1% aqueous soln yellow Violet

α-Naphthyl red 3.7-5.0 1 drop 0.1% solution in 70% alcohol red Yellow

p-Ethoxychrysoidine 3.5-5.5 1 drop 0.1% aqueous solution red Yellow

Properties of acids and bases


   Properties of acids and bases

Properties of Acids

  1. Acid tastes sour and must not be tasted.
  2. Acids turn blue litmus paper to red.

  3. Aqueous solutions of acids conduct electric current. They are therefore good electrolytes

  4. Acids react with bases to form salts and water

  5. Acids give out hydrogen gas when they are reacted with an active metal like alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, zinc and aluminum.

Properties of Bases

  1. Bases taste bitter and must not be tasted

  2. They sense slippery or foamy. You must not by chance feel them

  3. Bases don’t alter the color of litmus paper but can they can turn red or acidified litmus paper to blue

  4. Aqueous solutions of bases conduct electricity and are therefore good electrolytes.

  5. Bases react with acids to form salts and water

The periodic table and periodicity


   periodicity of the periodic table
The periodic table is a table showing the elements prearranged in order of increasing atomic number, in accordance with the periodic law. In the periodic table, elements that have related chemical properties and electronic structures are placed in vertical columns known as the groups.

Periodicity of the elements

Periodicity is one among the basic aspects of the elements in the periodic table.

What Is Periodicity?

Periodicity of elements means the persistent trends that are visible in the properties of element. These trends that exist in the property of elements became noticeable to Mendeleev when he prearranged the elements in the periodic table order of increasing mass. From the properties that were displayed by the recognized elements, it was easy for Mendeleev to foretell where there were “breaks” in his table, or elements that were not yet discovered.

The contemporary periodic table is extremely related to Mendeleev’s table, but in the present day elements are prearranged in the order of increasing atomic number, which showcases the number of protons in an atom. There are no unidentified elements; even though fresh elements can be formed which have even larger numbers of protons.

The Periodic Properties are enumerated below:

  1. Ionization energy – Ionization energy is energy needed to remove an electron from an ion or gaseous atom.
  2. Atomic radius – Atomic radius is the distance between the centers of two atoms that are in close relationship with each other.

  3. Electronegativity – This is a measure of the ability of an atom to form a chemical bond

  4. Electron affinity –This is an ability of an atom to accept an electron

Periodic Trends or Periodicity

The periodicity of the above properties follows trends as you go across a row or period on the periodic table or down a column or group on the periodic table.

While moving from Left to Right-across the period

• Ionization Energy Increases

• Electronegativity Increases

• Atomic Radius Decreases

While moving Top to Bottom-down the group

• Ionization Energy Decreases

• Electronegativity Decreases

• Atomic Radius Increases

The definition of the Periodic Law

The Periodic Law states that the physical and chemical properties of elements in the periodic table reappear in a methodical and conventional way when the elements are prearranged in order of increasing atomic number.

Top 12 IMPORTANT LIFE LESSONS


  Very important life lessons
One of the important life lesson
1. Deferring your happiness to the future is a
terrible idea
Too many people presume that when they
have that one thing they can work towards for
years then “everything will be alright”.
This is delusional.
When you get it, there’ll be something else
missing in your life. I fundamentally believe
that long-term pure happiness from one
particular situation or achievement is a pipe-
dream, but we can learn to be content with
what we have, live in the now, all while
enjoying the progress and changes we are
making.
If your whole life is working up towards one
really big major goal that you hold on to for
years, then you will have a major anticlimax
after the dust settles. Work towards it, but
stop deferring your happiness. Take this lesson seriously.
2. Living a good life is the best way possible
to convince people:
Enough words and enough arguing. This is very important because like they say action speaks louder than voice. Just live
by example and soon you’ll have people on
your side when they see your results and how
passionate you are. No need to “convince”
them. Just show them that you are there, tell
them how you got there, and they will start to
realise that maybe you aren’t that crazy after all. They will learn their lesson and adjust accordingly.
3. Nobody has it all figured out. This is one of the important LESSONS life has thought me. Everyone has a problem nomatter how much they try to cover it, this fact has helped to drive home the african proverb which says that the ” he goat sweats but it furs prevents others from seeing it” dont be deceived by the fake smiles and show that almost everyone displays. Dont be deceived by the fake life of most celebrities, dont compare your life to their own because everyone has where the shoe is pinching them.
Nobody has it all figured out
Almost everyone has problems and puts on a
brave face – don’t presume they have it easy.
You see of each person what they let you see.
You have no idea what they are going through
or what they had to put up with to be in a
situation that you can consider “easy”.
This is universal – millionaires, students, the
cool kid, the party animal, the introvert and
everyone in between has more to their story
than the superficial restricted one you see.
Never dismiss them as having it easy if you
don’t know the entire story. Very important!
View also : 7 IMPORTANT LIFE LESSONS THAT A YOUNG
GIRL LEARNT FROM breaking UP WITH
HER EX

4. I wonder why most people especially will rather lie than admit that they dont know somethings in life. They is nothing to be ashamed of because no one know it all in life. If you dont know something you should admit it, feel free to ask for help because according to an important african proverb “a traveller that asks questions never misses his destination.
There’s no shame in saying “I don’t know”
There is a stigma in some cultures to admit
ignorance about a particular topic. Don’t
dance around the issue – just say I don’t
know. Honesty is way smarter.
  important things that teacch us painful  lessons in life making us wise.  Foolish money
5. More money will NEVER solve your
problems
As long as you are not living in the street or
going hungry, then you do not “need” more
money. When you spend enough time with
people who are actually living on next to
nothing, but having a full life, then you will
truly understand this. Everything that is
wonderful about life doesn’t cost a penny, and
the rest is way cheaper than you think it is.
View also : TWO IMPORTANT MANAGEMENT LESSONS I
LEARNT FROM A 500 NAIRA NOTE

 lessons in life that are very important
6. The sixth important life lesson applies to everyone in the information age.
The Internet is the greatest tool ever
available to us, but daily use must be capped
Unlike TVs, the Internet is interactive and
allows you to take part and become virtually
social. It connects communities all over the
world and without it, the last many years
simply would have been much more difficult
for me for many reasons.
Having said that, it has the same potential as
TV to become a black hole of time. Use it to
enrich your life, but put a cap on how much
you use it so you can get out and live that
life. Replacing one screen with another (even
when you use it to chat to people) is just
escaping the real world, which is much more
beautiful.
7. Man’s demands can be insatiable so its very important that you keep it at the back of your mind.
You can’t please everyone
State your opinion and stick to your guns.
Trying to please everyone is a fool’s errand. If
you are confident enough and share your idea
with enough people, you will piss off someone
no matter what you talk about. That’s their
problem, not yours.
View also : The proffessor’s lesson about setting our priorities
View also : real life tips for students
8. Trying to be cool or following trends is for
mindless sheep
Peer pressure is for people who are afraid of
their individuality in life. You are unique. Stand up for yourself, and
go against the flow if that’s what you feel is
best. What’s cool now will be frozen over in a
few years.
9. I wonder why people find it difficult to say this magic words “i’m SORRY” . C’mon its very important that you learn how to make use of it. Swallow your pride and apologise
Never hold a grudge and never try to win every
argument. Sometimes it’s best to let your
pride slide for the sake of clearing the air with
someone. Be the first to say you’re sorry.
Never wait for the other person to make the
first move.
 12 THINGS THAT IS IMPORTANT AND NECESARY FOR US TO LEARN IN LIFE
10. Doing anything specifically to impress
people is stupid: Now this is a very important life lesson.
People will never give you the validation you
seek if you try to be a dancing monkey for
them. Saying how many languages you speak,
how rich you are, who you know, where you
studied or what you do for a living, or trying
to show-off in any other way to get someone
to like you, or working for these things just for
the bragging rights will leave you really
disappointed.
People are impressed by those who aren’t
trying to impress them and are comfortable in
themselves and social and interesting.
Sometimes to be “interesting” all you have to
do is be a good listener.
  important things that teacch us painful  lessons in life making us wise.  Foolish money
11. Love isn’t “all” you need, but if you don’t
have it in some form, your life will be very
empty
We don’t need love to survive, but without it
there will be a huge hole inside you. Make
sure that every day you have someone (family,
friends, lover) to remind you that you are
special. In Life If you postpone this part of your life
until later , after you get or do that thing you
want to do, you will continue in that lonely
path indefinitely.
View also : how to use fear to your own advantage
12. The last life lesson in this list :
You don’t know what you’ve got ’till its
gone
Don’t take anything for granted.
The most valuable lessons in life can never
be expressed in black and white, but must be
experienced.
You don’t know what you’ve got ’till its
gone
fluentin3months.com

24 Ways of Becoming Successful In Life


  1. Make friends with successful people and
    occasionally buy them gift and surprise them
    with lunch because successful people always
    give and hardly get, so when you give them,
    they value the gift a lot.
  2. Get a mentor and follow his instructions
    and respect the relationship. Never beg your
    mentor for money or disrespect his or her
    privacy.
     24 Ways of becoming Successful In Life
    Read also : RULES FOR A SUCCESSFUL RELATIONSHIP.
  3. Make new positive friends as often as
    possible and ensure you keep the
    communication line open. Create a network of
    friends and not just connections.
  4. Show kindness to everyone. Some small
    boys today will be big boys tomorrow. The
    biggest dog in the neighborhood was once a
    puppy. And keep the information/secret to
    yourself.
  5. Always plan ahead and be proactive. He
    that plans the future work less in the future.
     24 Ways of Becoming Successful In Life
    Read also : 11 TIPS ON HOW TO SPEAK EFFECTIVELY IN
    PUBLIC
  6. Listen to speeches and messages from
    great teachers. Both religious and
    educational.
  7. Attend seminars and training on any area
    you need to improve yourself. Train the
    trainer, personal development, public speaking,
    sales etc.
  8. Have the habit of keeping a pen and a
    writing pad handy because ideas come in the
    form of flashes. The smallest pen is bigger and
    better than the biggest brain.
  9. Make sure at every point in time you are
    reading a book. If you spend 20 minutes
    reading daily, for 52 weeks you would have
    consumed 1,000,000 words.

 24 Ways of Becoming Successful In Life
11.Stay away from television as much as
possible. You can watch educational
channels. Men with big TV sits in front of
them to watch men with big library.
12 Put control over your mouth, never say evil
of any man, what you are not certain of
should not be said. Say good of all men.
13. Always show appreciation for any good
deed you received.

Read also : TRUST ME IF YOU KEEP MAKING ANY OF
THIS MISTAKES YOU WON’T GET THAT JOB
THAT YOU ARE LOOKING FOR

  1. Always help someone in need.
  2. Live a debt free life. What you can’t pay
    cash for is not your size.
  3. Give out loans that you can part with as
    gift, so that you don’t destroy your business
    and relationship.
  4. Create legitimate multiple source of
    income.
     24 Ways of Becoming Successful In Life
    Read also : WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT YOUR
    CHILD’S DEVELOPMENT
  5. Save at least 10 percent of your income.

  6. Invest a portion of your income. And be
    patient to see it grow. If what you have in
    your hands is not good to be called a harvest
    then it’s a seed, sow it.
  7. Keep a good financial record of all income
    and expenses, so you won’t ask later “where
    did my money go”
  8. Be involved in community service. Control
    traffic, free lesson class for students etc.
  9. Keep getting better on your daily goals
    and dream, develop yourself on them and
    make sure you get to the top 10 % of your
    industry.
     24 Ways of Becoming Successful In Life
    Read also : USAIN BOLT’S NEW UNIT OF SUCCESS

  10. Make sure you engage in exercise. It keeps
    your brain alert and your body fit to enjoy
    your success.

  11. Pray often, and know that for every
    success, there is a stronger being that made it
    possible.
    Read also : TWENTY STUDY TIPS FOR ENGINEERING AND
    MATHEMATICS STUDENTS

This post was submitted by a reader: edeh joy

different categories of boy-friends that sharp girls in universities and polytechnics keep


  different categories of boy-friends that sharp girls in universities and polytechnics keep  different categories of boy-friends that sharp girls in universities and polytechnics keep   different categories of boy-friends that sharp girls in universities and polytechnics keep

do you know that a girl can keep up to
10 different types of boyfriends at the same time?
read on!

  1. Academic BoyFriend: This One Takes Them
    To Night Classes, Help Them Do Assignment
    And They Always Stay Together During Exams. The academic boyfriend : This one university or polytechnic boyfriend is the one that teaches her the right things to do as an undergraduate .

  2. Financial BoyFriend: This Guy Is Usually In
    A Different City ( PH, Lagos, Warri etc) He
    Takes Care Of Their House Rent, School Fees,
    Text Books, Feeding Allowance..

  3. Asst Financial BoyFriend: This One Is
    Always In Imsu And He Takes Care Of Their
    Hair, Pedicure, Manicure And Makeup. He
    Buys Them Yogurt, Jollof Rice, Pop Corn Or
    Shawama After School.

  4. Moral BoyFriend: This One Is The Religious
    BoyFriend ( Church Mate ) They Come In The
    Name Of Advice To Tap Current From The
    Babe. They Give Moral Instructions From The
    Church Premises To The Girls Bed.

  5. NEPA BoyFriend: This One Is Neither Cold
    Nor Hot, He Is Always called To Come And fix
    The Bulb And Switch In The Room Then
    afterwards He His Given A French Kiss Plus
    360 Degree Hug.

  6. Party BoyFriend: This One Takes Them To
    Fresher’s Night, Award’s Night, Orange Groove,
    40 40 etc.

  7. Security BoyFriend: This One Help Them Get
    Back Their Phone When They Are Being
    Obtained By Cultist.

  8. SwagTutor BoyFriend: This One Tells Them
    How To Combine Colurs While Dressing For
    School In The Morning.

  9. Hostel BoyFriend: This One They Always
    HangOut At The Balcony, At Evening Time.
    Then She Always Sleeps Over In Guys Room
    And They Consume A lot Of Food From The
    Girls.

  10. Original BoyFriend: This One Is The Boss. This particular guy is the one that the the university girl has fallen in love with . And even if this guy is a bad boy it doesnt really matter because this category of boyfriend is the one she truely loves and would like to marry .
    The Babe Visits Him Alot During Weekend.
    Cooks For Him, Do House Chores And They
    Share Emotional Feelings. Ceteris Paribus This
    BoyFriend Is Constant….

5 types of students you will meet in a night class.


  5 types of students you will meet in a night class.
   5 types of students you will meet in a night class
A reader is a leader. Many find it difficult to be up to date in their academics in school due to too much work load, unforseen circumstances and incessant lectures during the day, so they try to make up for the lost time by reading in the night. So many people are afraid of going to night class but reading at night can be fun. There are 5 types of students that you will meet in a night class no matter the kind of school you are attending and they include.

1.the DJ’s : i wonder why these set of students come for night class at all when they could have been developing their talents in studios and disco parties. This set of students will be playing music loudly from their sound stereos and phones with loud speakers. Some serious students are guilty of this too as they will playing songs with cool beats from their laptops while reading. Please you people should stop this. If you want to be playing make use of your earpiece.

2.The sleepy heads : these set of students come to class merely to sleep. You dare not start a sleeping competition with them coz they will win. The one that annoyed me most was the way one girl released a loud fart with a choking smell in class while sleeping in class. The vibration of the fart woke her up and she pretended as if it was another that did it .

3.The dark horse : these set of people will come to your block and read at night and in the morning they will go. They are serious minded, strange and mysterious because no one knows them in person as they prefer to go to classes where no one knows them to avoid disturbance.i think i belong to this class to some extent.
   5 types of students you will meet in a night class.

4.The bookworms : i dont need to say much about this set of students. Indeed literally they are bookworms. The rate at which this set of people read incites fear into other students. You see them in night class whether its raining of shining. Some have the superhuman ability to read till day break. The first day i went to night class in my life i saw so many bookworms reading , sharp sharp i no waste time at all i carry my books join them, i read for 3 hours and the next thing i remembered was waking up 2 hours to daybreak, Nawaao! and most of the bookworms have been reading through out without blinking, i had to adjust.

5 places where students inability to read reflects on


  5 places where students inability  to read reflects on

  5 places where students inability  to read reflects on

5 places where your inability to read will be reflecting on.

“Nowadays” young people find it difficult to read their books. As far As they are concerned reading is a lost virtue that doesnt pay, the would rather spend their time party-ing and engaging in stupid frivolous activities like cultism, womanising, sorting, smoking……. e.t. c
I’m not here to advise you to amend your ways because i’m sure you already know the truth. Five places where your laziness will reflect on are

  1. Your Grades/Result : i dont think this one needs much explainations, if you fail to read there is every tendency that you will fail that exam and it will definitely reflect on your grades.

  2. your pocket: some will Resort to sorting in other to pass their exam, but that money that you waste every year in the name of paying your lecturers money to give you a pass mark (why not bend down, read your books, pass your exams, use the money for other more productive purposes?)

  3. Your Body : its now an open secret that some lecturers sleep with their students in other to help them pass a course, i know you are a super runsgirl but why not read your books – earn a good grade – and preserve your Body or dont you know that you are priceless?

    4.Time : another place that it will be reflecting on is your time, you will waste more years in school rewriting carry over courses, waste years looking for job after graduation because as a half baked graduate no company will be willing to employ you so why not bend down and read?

5.overall well being: reading improves your grammer, widens the horizon of Your knowledge, helps you to converse intelligently with people from all walks of life, helps in building up Your self esteem…….. e. t. c Having known to refusal and inability to read will be reflecting on all these areas of Your life, “why not bend down and read?”

LOIUS Braille the blind boy that invented the braille’s system of writing


  LOIUS Braille the blind boy that invented the braille's system of writing

I know you have probably heard of Louis braille, the boy that invented the braille system of reading for the blind using tiny little dots, he was also BLIND, blind? but how was he able to…..? yes he was blind but he didnt allow his physical condition or background to put his back on the ground and thats why i will be sharing this extract about his life to drive the point home that nomatter the kind of condition that you find yourself in – you still have the ability to harness the enourmous resources God has given to you.

The man who gave to the blind the wonderful braille system of reading was himself blind. A Frenchman born in 1809 near park, Louis braille’s father was A saddler; while A toddler playing in his father’s workshop, he had inadvertently picked up A knife, which slipped and pierced his eye. Infection set in and when only three, he was blind in both eyes. The village priest, A kindly man proved to be A lifesaver to the lonely unhappy child, reading to him stories from the bible, describing flowers and wonders of nature, teaching him to distinguish the songs of birds and also music. He proved so responsive that at the age of seven the local school master accepted him as one of the scholars, where-the only blind boy in the class – he displayed such grasp and retentiveness of memory that he needed only to hear A thing once to be able to repeat it. Thanks again to the good offices of the priest, when ten, Louis was enrolled as A scholar in the institute for the blind paris, the only one of its kind in europe. Teaching was by mutual instruction. The bright boys passing on the lesson to others. Louis proved outstanding, and was appointed A teacher while still in his teens. He felt keenly the inadequacy of “mutual instruction “. The conviction grew, “without books the blind can never read” and at once he set his fertile brain and imagination to the solution of this apparently insoluble problem. A chance encounter with an army officer gave him his first clue. He learnt of messages sent by code called “night writing” made up of dots and dashes on A strip of cardboard conveying A message to the troop in darkness which they could decipher by feeling, without having to light a touch. Night and day he wrestled with the problem, and in his early twenties had built up the entire braile system. With extraordinary ingenuity he worked out sixty-three combinations of dots covering the entire alphabet entire alphabet, including punctuation marks and abbreviation signs.
The small punctures of the dots on the cardboard were easily felt, and the letter it stood for quickly recognized. To braille’s bitter disappointment his new system met with skepticism from the governors of the institute who initially forbade its use. But in 1847 the braille system was first employed in the institute. Goverment recognition of his great invention followed, but the honour only reached him when he was a dying man in 1852. He was tubercular, suffering frequently from hemorrhage of the lung, he died at the age of 43. He has reaped a harvest infinitely greater than he could have imagined. The braille system today encircles the whole world. The priest’s word to the little blind boy has been abundantly justified ;”God means you to use your blindness for his glory and the good of mankind”.

Let the life of this young man be a challenge to you. Learn how to walk through difficulty into success because difficulty and greatness are inseperable.

         The psychologist magazine jan 1972 pg19 manified  house

20 effective study tips and techniques for students of mathematics and engineering courses



Being an engineering or mathematics students can be very cumbersome and stressful due to lots of brain racking calculations that you will be encountering during your course of study but engineering and mathematics is very vital and important to the society that we cant do without it, it may be a bit complicated but when “the going gets tough the tough gets going” and thats why we will be offering twenty effective study tips for mathematics and engineering students to encourage and help them for the good work that they are doing to make the society a better place to live in.
Tip #1: Take good notes, and keep them all
after your classes are over.
Engineering textbooks can be dense, but
endure through the tedium. Do your reading –
all of it – and keep a highlighter and page
markers handy. After the class is over, keep
your most useful and well-written textbooks
as reference. Your notes, annotations, and
highlighting will be invaluable later on. You
may even want to keep a “Rules of Thumb”
notebook, allowing you quick access to your
most-used formulas.
Tip #2: Get to know your professors.
Develop a relationship with your professors so
you feel comfortable approaching them and
asking for help. Get to know one or two key
professors particularly well, and turn to them
for help with your homework, insight into the
industry, and even job or program references.
Tip #3: Ask questions, both in class and out.
Your professors want you to learn. But if the
only thing you ever ask is, “Will this be on the
test?” then you are not taking advantage of
their knowledge or willingness to help. Ask for
additional examples to clarify difficult
equations and concepts. More often than not,
your fellow students will thank you for
speaking up, and your professor will
appreciate your active investment in the
material.
Tip #4: Try to solve a problem before asking
for help.
No one wants to do your homework for you.
You’ll be more likely to get help if you’ve
already begun the effort. Even if you’re totally
lost, make a legitimate, prolonged effort to
solve a problem before asking for help. When
you do seek help, be prepared to discuss what
you tried already, and bring your scratch paper
showing your attempts.
Tip #5: Form a study group.
Working alone can get exasperating if you find
yourself stuck on a problem. Working with
others will not only introduce other viewpoints
to approaching a problem, it will also provide
encouragement and camaraderie in the face of
frustration.
Tip #6: Teach someone else.
One of the most effective ways of ensuring you
understand something is by explaining it to
someone else. Before you move past a subject,
make sure you not only answered the question
but also can replicate and explain the process.
Each new subject and concept will build on
the last, so don’t move on until you’ve
mastered each new idea.
Tip #7: Diversify your engineering classes.
Take classes in all sorts of engineering, even if
they are not your concentration.
Understanding not only the subject matter,
but also how other types of engineers
approach and solve problems, will lend insight
into your own field, from biomedical to
mechanical to chemical to environmental
engineering and beyond.
Tip #8: Take classes outside engineering,
particularly design classes.
The most successful engineers are insatiable
learners, so seek to broaden your skill set
generally. A design class can teach you how
to represent information visually and how to
talk about an idea from a big picture
perspective. A writing class can hone your
skills for communicating your ideas to others.
A business class can prepare you for
organizational tasks and leadership roles later
in your career.
Tip #9: Hone your communications skills,
including conversation, writing, and
presentation.
The best and most innovative ideas in the
world have no hope of growing past the
drawing board if you are unable to
communicate them effectively. And today,
most technical communication between team
members and leadership happens over email,
which is a form of writing. Learn to present an
argument simply and without agenda, and
always read your emails through once or twice
before sending.
[ also read 10 tips on how to graduate with a very good
result in school

tips on how to take care of your brain and
memory in other to prevent memory loss

advice from nairalanders on how to make a
good result in school
]
Tip #11: Build your portfolio.
Participate in as many hands-on projects as
possible, especially those outside the
classroom. Future employers look for both
coursework and relevant experience, and a
well-organized and articulate portfolio will be
invaluable during your job search. Your
practical project experience will also reinforce
the “in theory” knowledge you gain in class.
Tip #12: Get a summer internship.
One of the best portfolio buildings blocks is
the summer internship. Internships do more
than build your resume; they demonstrate to
potential employers that you can commit to a
long-term role and work as part of a team.
Tip #13: Build your network.
Do not wait until you need a job to start
building professional relationships. In addition
to getting to know your professors and peers,
attend extracurricular lectures, workshops, and
networking events, and get to know as many
people working or studying in your field as
possible. Take a genuine interest in the work
of others, ask lots of questions, and don’t be
afraid to seek guidance or advice from those
of advanced experience. They were once
neophyte engineers too!
Tip #14: Scour the resources of professional
engineering associations and companies.
Professional engineering associations, such as
the National Society of Professional Engineers,
are an invaluable resource for jobs, advice,
and networking. Identify organizations that
share your values and interests, and make as
many contacts as possible.
Tip #15: Skip the honors class.
In the engineering field, your GPA matters. If
you struggle in calculus, don’t kill yourself in
Honors Calc; take the easier class, learn the
material thoroughly, and take the higher
grade.
Tip #16: Learn when to lead and when to back
down.
Engineers often work in teams, and every team
has one or more leaders. You should feel
comfortable in both leading and following the
directions of others. Hone your leadership
skills and learn how to effectively influence
group decisions, but recognize when your
contribution should be to take orders and
follow direction.
Tip #17: Work on the problem before the team
meets.
The best results occur when a group discusses
ideas that have already been fleshed out by
individual members. Learn to do your own
work and self-motivate. Always arrive at the
team meeting with ideas in mind.
Tip #18: Be a perfectionist.
In the words of one engineer, “In the working
engineer world, a 99% correct product can
cost millions of dollars in damages.” Adopt
the mindset of practicing something until it is
perfect, as opposed to going as quickly as
possible and settling for a B. When your work
is 100%, even if it is slower, it is valuable.
Tip #19: Identify your inspiration.
What made you decide to study engineering?
Who do you look up to in your chosen field?
Learn about how individuals and companies
have sought and found success, and replicate
their behaviors.
Tip #20: Take heart and persevere.
Engineering is a difficult course of study for
everyone, no matter their IQ or test scores.
Frustration can lead to feeling like an
imposter. Every future engineer has struggled
through seemingly impossible problem sets,
cranky professors, and gut-wrenching exams.
In the face of inevitable small failures,
recognize that you are challenging yourself
like never before, and push on through the
difficult experiences.
http://www.electricalengineeringschools.org/20-tips-for-engineering-students/

10 Safety tips for preventing laboratory accidents and hazards


1.Always double check. Remember to double
check labels and never assume you know
the content inside a bottle or tube based on
color or size.

2.Utilize test tube racks. Test tube racks help
create organization within the lab and are
often considered a laboratory necessity. By
storing test tubes in designated racks, you
can sort and separate samples while
maintaining an organized space.

3.Fire is the most common serious hazard that
one faces in a typical laboratory. While proper
procedures and training can minimize the
chances of an accidental fire, laboratory
workers should still be prepared to deal with a
fire emergency should it occur. In dealing with
a laboratory fire, all containers of infectious
materials should be placed into autoclaves,
incubators, refrigerators, or freezers for
containment.faulty electrical connections should also be avoided.

4.Do not perform unauthorized experiments.
Without the proper knowledge or equipment,
performing experiments without consent
from a supervisor can lead to major
problems.

5.Wear the appropriate safety protective
apparel. Laboratory safety apparel may
include safety eyewear, a lab coat, gloves,
etc.

  1. Autoclaves and sterilizers
    Workers should be trained to recognize the
    potential for exposure to burns or cuts that
    can occur from handling or sorting hot
    sterilized items or sharp instruments when
    removing them from autoclaves/ sterilizers or
    from steam lines that service the autoclaves.

(similar posts to read
1 Reasons why art is better than science

2 #historical! the world first test tube baby
penguin (pix)

3 scientific evidence suggesting that humans has
using honey as far back as the stone age has
been discovered

4 do young chimpanzees suffer from post
traumatic stress after been seperated from
their parents ?

)

7.Notify supervisor of missing or damaged
equipment. Equipment that is damaged or
not working correctly can cause accidents
very easily.

8.Know what to do in case of an emergency .
This may vary slightly, depending on your
facility’s guidelines, but it’s always good to
know how to handle emergency situations
in any laboratory, medical or clinical
setting.

  1. to limit entry of radionuclides into the
    human body (via ingestion, inhalation ,
    absorption , or through open wounds) to
    quantities as low as reasonably
    achievable (ALARA) and always within
    the established limits;

10 . eating and chewing gums of any sort should be avoided.

5 things a student should work on before graduating from school to succeed



5 Things to work on before graduation.
It’s quite appaling that there is no difference again between illiterates that never went to school and all this half baked graduates that our schools are releasing into the Labour market yearly. It’s because students fail to To plan for their future while they are still in school especially the cultists, runs girls, party – fashion-gadgets freaks, including lazy students that find it difficult reading their books. They feel that the world revolves around them but what they don’t know is that failure to plan is a perfect plan for failure. The outside world is different from the University – campus or school world and if you don’t want to be crying had I known by the time that you will be graduating from that school school were your parents and guardians are spending their hard earned money to train you you then must work on 5 aspects of your life that will be listed below


1. Spoken english
It is so sad that majority of
Nigerian students in tertiary
institutions don’t bother about
polishing their spoken and written
english. Some graduates speak
english worse than a toddler, making
one wonder what they spent 16yrs
doing in school. You hear them spew
gabbage like “he come and slap me
and I come and beat him”. If you
speak such english to an interviewer,
even with first class clearly written
on your CV, he will probably think
you runzed your way through school.
The use of words like yeah, goddamn,
omo, sh*t, f**k etc should be stopped
cos they don’t portray you as a
decent person.
2. Mode of dressing
Looking fly on campus was one of the
things I enjoyed during my
undergraduate days. It was fun cos
you had so much of the opposite sex
around to admire you. The moment I
graduated, my orientation changed.
Not that a graduate should stop
wearing denims and sneakers, but
sagging and putting on studs with
crazy hairstyle should come to a stop
if such a person wants to fit into the
corporate world. In the corporate
world, you get to mingle with
matured or married men with enough
decency. Sagging in their midst will
make you look kiddo. Just cos your
favourite musician davido sags his
trousers doesn’t mean you should do
thesame. He gets paid to do that
while you could get fired for doing
thesame.
3. Spendthrift attitude
The first time I heard someone say
his salary is 70k, I hissed and
mocked him in my mind cos that was
thesame amount we students spent
on phones just to oppress each other.
Now I’ve seen people earning less
than 45k even with years of
experience. What kind of person do
you think you’ll turn out to be when
all you want is the latest expensive
gadgets? In the real world, no one
cares about the kind of phone you
use. Even on naija campus these
days, girls have stopped falling for a
guy because of the phone he uses,
they now trip for flashy cars. So,
before you spend that huge amount
on a phone, ask yourself this
question: “is it going to improve my
standard of living?”. I didn’t know I
could turn my smart phone to a mini
laptop with WPS, Excel etc until I got
employed. My phone was all about
bbm, whatsapp and facebook. I now
saw the full potential of the phone.
You need to cut down on your
spendings. Also, get the idea of
clubbing off your mind or it might
ruin your pockets. The money saved
from disciplining yourself can be
used to start something great. Use
your head.
(also read
1 advice from nairalanders on how to make a good result in school

2 Why students graduate with poor grades

3 lessons that all students and graduates must learn in other to survive after schooling

4 advice! must read for all undergraduates

5 Why you should send your children to a boarding school
6. 10 tips on how to graduate with a very good result in school
4. Another thing every student must work upon is laziness.
You remember how you use to
complain about the large notebooks
you have to read for exams? If you
lack a good reading culture, it is
certain you will be bereft of ideas
to contribute to a company’s growth.
You are always seen reading gossip
blogs where you are updated with
the lifestyle of celebrities but lack
the idea of what the top 20
questions interviewers ask. Scaling
through campus days as a lazy
person doesn’t mean such is likely to
continue in the real world. Carrying
on with laziness is what leads to
prostitution, where a lady feels she
can use her body to fetch her daily
bread instead of her brain, or where
a guy still expects his uncle to be
the one to help him achieve his
targets even after getting him a job
through nepotism. You get to wonder
why they spent 16yrs developing
their brain in school.

5. Pride
I remember when I was in my final
year at school, I was always happy
about what the future held for me. I
knew I was going to get a job that
pays 350k immediately I graduated.
Reality slapped me in the face when
my first offer was a job paying 30k.
I had no choice but to take the offer
cos I was already tired of adding
more months to the six months I had
spent at home just sleeping. Luckily
for me, that job paved the way for a
better one cos it gave me the
needed experience recruiters want to
see on a CV. I’ve now realise that
350k is only feasible for those in
the oil sector and those with huge
years of experience, not a fresh
graduate who doesn’t know his left
from his right. As you are about
graduating, never see any job as
demeaning. Take it up while you
continue searching for a better one.
This gives you experience. A bird in
hand is better than a million in the
bush. Remember, you are a nobody
and no one gives a damn about you
out there. So, drop your pride and
use your head and hands or end up
spending years still eating your
mum’s food with insults.

Written by Adewole Segun.
God’spower nwachukwu
If it make sense to you share to a student.uh

advice from nairalanders on how to make a good result in school


making a good result in the university can be tough especially if you messed up in your first year, but don’t worry there is still hope for you. you may not be able to make first class again depending on how bad your mess up was but you can still make a wonderful result despite if you buckle your shoes and start working and reading very hard. a nairalander that messed up in his first asked such a question and these are the reasonable replies that he got!

question: how can I recover from my first year’s mess up (bad result ) and still graduate with first class or second class upper ?

                                        Replies

#handsomebeauty : read as if it all depends on reading and pray
as if it all depends on praying, coz trust me
no matter how well you do without God your
efforts will be in vain

#francizy : OP, start studying with the semester,
don’t wait till when a test or exam is around
the corner. This is because, the more you pile
work, the more you put yourself in difficult
conditions. I never studied during semester
breaks (except in 100L) but i can assure you
that most first class graduates did study
ahead. So if you really wanna graduate with a
first class, ensure you go the extra mile.
Know your lecturers in and out and ensure you
know everything in your handout/note book
and everything in a course’s past questions
(that’s if the lecturer repeats questions).

#eminik08 : I had a hard time too in my first year while in
school. Naturally I lost my drive for reading
and academics. I started finding fault in
everything I do. But first thing you should
know is there is still hope. My first year was
poor and I still came with four point CGPA.
1: Just study the pattern of your lecturers and
give them what they want first before adding
your own sugar. Remember this is Nigeria and
“I too know” doesn’t always work.
2: Study past questions. They are their to give
you clue to future questions.
3: Don’t be too hard on yourself. Remember
this is first year and you still have four other
years to make up
4: Discover your study pattern. There are
times and places where you read and
understand better. It may be in the morning,
or at night.
5: Remember that cramming doesn’t work.
Read to understand and write in your own
words.
6: Shun all negative thoughts especially
during exams and please please please for no
reason, don’t hate any lecturer or course. You
can’t enjoy what you don’t like.
7: find ways to impress your lecturers and
please help your classmates when they need
it. Avoid this idea of competition in class. you
are not competing with anybody but your
GPA. Remember when you help others, you
gain more.
8: Know the kind of friends you keep. While in
school I keep different kinds of friends:
the informants: They always get first hand
information so I am always informed on latest
happenings
the energizer: They disturb me with their
questions, assignments and request and so
helps me to keep my game up.
The stress relievers: they are clowns and as
such helps me to relieve school stress
The reading colleagues: This group are people
I read with. They know why they are in school
and as such helps me when I am not
performing. Most times I am the person doing
the motivating work.
9:Meditate. Find some quiet time and think
through how far you have come. You will know
you have gone far from where you started.
10: Pray when you feel all is not well. It works
Remember your talent may start showcasing
when you start taking departmental courses.
Please don’t worry but believe you can and
May God give you the grace. Amen.

lessons that all students and graduates must learn in other to survive after schooling


although education is the key but been unprepared for harsh circumstances that one usually encounters after graduating from school can lead to cries of had I known?but Reading the following tips and applying the advice will be your saving grace after graduating from school.


(1) SKILL: One thing you are going to need
badly after school and for the rest of your life
is money, that is why you still see men in their
40s, 50s even 60s still riding okada and
driving taxi to earn money. The truth is that
immediately you become a graduate your
parents or those who were responsible for your
training will stop supporting you financially.
They will assume you now have all it takes to
survive, so the collection of pocket money will
stop, and you will have to start solving your
financial problems with your own earning
ability. What this implies is that you will have
to look for job with your certificate, and most
often you will likely be underemployed,
meaning you will not be paid what you are
worth. The consequence of this is that you will
end up not having enough financial resources
to actualize your goals. Solving your financial
problem will become difficult, and definitely
the need for money will rise, because you will
start thinking of getting a place for yourself,
so that you can be on your own, getting
married, going for a master’s program and so
on. As this happens, psychological problems
such as frustration, depression, self-pity, low
self-esteem will start setting in, and if you are
not careful, you may get demoralized to the
point giving up on life.
To survive or avoid this you need a skill. Skill
is the ability to do something very well. In the
real world, people don’t pay you for your
certificate, they pay you for what you can do,
and that’s is the only legal way of getting
money in the society, if you do otherwise, you
would be called a fraudster, a thief or an
armed robber. For example if I know how to
repair phones anyone who has any problem
with his/her phone will always come to me ,
and by the time I help him/her to solve the
problem, the individual will pay me for that
service. Now the question is what can you do?
How can you render direct service with your
current course of study?
The point here is you must have a skill. If you
have none yet, enroll in a training center and
start learning something. There are so many
things you can learn within three months, and
that would earn you nothing less than 50,000
per month.
Never look down on any skill, just consider
your interest and what you love doing, and
then acquire a skill in that area. When you do
this, you can easily become your own boss
after school or even before you graduate. If
you are a graduate already reading this article
and don’t have a job yet I recommend same.
With an extra skill, you can increase your
income. Never put your hope on getting a job
that is not certain. To be forewarned is to
before armed.
(2) INFORMATION: There is a general believe
that knowledge is power, and that is very true.
The 21st century world is information driven,
and you need to consistently update yourself
with the latest information in the areas that
are critical to your survival. Sometimes people
suffer because of ignorance.
If you must meet up with the latest trend, you
have to develop the habit if continuous
learning, you must be an ardent reader and an
unrelenting information seeker. Try as much
as possible to know everything you need to
know that will help you to maximize your
potentials. Always remember that what you
don’t know is more powerful than you. Keep
yourself informed so that you will not be
deformed.
Besides the acquisition of information, one
other critical thing is the application of the
information you have obtained. Having
information without using is meaningless.
Strive as much as possible to know all that
you need to know about moving to your next
level and take action at the right time.
(3) GUT: According to oxford advance learner
dictionary, gut is defined as the courage or
ability to do something difficult or unpleasant.
The truth is that life is not fair for anybody,
and definitely you are going to have your own
share of life’s difficulty in your quest for
success. If you must succeed in the real world,
gut is a necessary factor, because without it
you will lack the courage to take action when
things are not favorable, and that will keep
you long in the valley of mediocrity. You may
be very intelligent while in school, but after
graduation you will discover that so many of
your classmates who were not as intelligent
as you were back in your school days are
getting ahead, the reason is simply because
they have the gut to try their ideas and that’s
what is getting them going.
To develop this quality, all you have to do is
to cure yourself of every known fear. Experts in
the field of personal development have
identified certain fears that contribute to
people’s failure in life. Such fears include, the
fear of death, fear of loss love, fear of ill-
health, fear of criticism, fear of physical pain,
fear of old age and so on. I assure you that if
you can master these basic fears, you are
going to have enough gut to try anything.
Action is what produces result. You will never
succeed if you don’t try and to try all you need
is gut.

(4) HARD WORK: In all of human history, hard
work has been a critical tool of success,
nothing can replace it. For you to survive and
excel in the real world, you need an
unwavering ability to take action, and
persevere until you succeed. Most persons fail
in life due to idleness. If you want to be poor
all you need to do is be idle, and before you
know it poverty will overtake you. A wise man
once said that “where talent is lazy, hard work
overtakes it”. No matter how knowledgeable,
gifted and talented you are, if you refused to
be hard-working, you will definitely be a
failure. Always have it in mind that hard work
is the only way. Never forget to always blend
your hard work with strategic planning and
persistence. Hard work combined in this
manner will produce success.
(5) NETWORKING: Networking has to do with
your ability to connect with people that will
help you in getting to your next level. Niyi
Adesanya, a personal development expert
based in Nigeria once define individual
competitiveness (in my own word, your
capacity for success) as ‘’what you know +
how you express it × by who you know and
who knows you’’. I completely agree with his
definition. The caliber of people you know and
people who know you has a way of facilitating
your success in life. As the world is today, the
people we know to be the best in certain field
are not actually the best. There are so many
people who would have out-shined them if
they are brought out of obscurity, but because
they are not known by those who can position
them to receive the honour they are worthy of,
they remain irrelevant in their cocoon. If we
must fully maximize our potential and remain
relevant, our ability to network and connect
with people who can help us get to our next
level is critical.
Author: Taiwo Emayosanlomo, Success coach
and Personal development expert.
You are allowed to share this post on your
blog or website, but you must give credit to
the author and the original source link of the
article.
Source: http://
taiwoemayosan.blogspot.com/2015/10/5-
things-you-need-to-survive-in-real.html

the biblical perspective : examination malpractice


Only those who endure till the end shall be
saved.

GOD helps those who help themselves is a
saying by many people to justify their
inordinate actions. This aphorism has been
misused and bastardised by many to achieve
success not only in crime but in examinations.
God helps those who…… Is biblical which
simply means that God blesses ones genuine
effort to succeed even where many think it is
difficult and impossible. Many a student has
understood this saying as justification for
examination malpractice(cooperation) in order
to pass an examination. Definitely, this is
unscrupulous.
. . . It pains me that many go as far as relying
on their friend , small paper in their pocket
and many other things in the hall than
trusting the LORD. Is it a normal thing to
follow the practice of the crowd or following
the commands of God?
Most of my reference will come from the book
of 2chronicles.
First take a look at Jehoshaphat in 2chro 17
vs 4
. . . . . . ” But sought the God of his father and
followed his command rather than the
practices of Israel”.
Due to this act by Jehoshaphat even his
enemies served him. This is because he was
committed to God. Take a look at Asa,he
trusted in God when vast army of cushites
surrounded him. Due to his prayers in verse 11
of chapter of 14, in verse 12
. . . ”The LORD struck down the cushites
before Asa and Judah. The cushites fled”
When you are committed to God, your strength
in all things is full.
2chro 16 vs 9a
for the eyes of the LORD range throughout the
earth to strengthen those whose heart are fully
committed to him ”.
God those not chose for us rather we chose for
our self the action to take. We can only make
our choice but CANNOT determine the
consequence. The same implies in the exam
hall. You chose to do what ever you want but
you can not chose the consequence or effect.
Ahab made a choice he never knew it will lead
to his death. 2chro 18.
Asa who once trusted in God, relied on another
king to win his opponent. What was his
consequence 2chro 16 vs 9b
”you have done a foolish thing and from now
on you will be at war ”
What pains me the most is that many will
pray before an exam God i trust in you in this
examination. Later right in the hall they will
be struggling to sit with one particular person.
In other words diverting the trust to the
person. Many will seek help from different
people when the exam becomes too difficult
just like Asa did in chapter 16. No matter
what happens in the hall always bear in mind
that
”it is far more honourable to fail than to
cheat”—-ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
i will never forget the saying by Rev. Fr.
Gabriel Ezema, the chaplain ll of st. Peters
chaplaincy University of Nigeria Nsukka, he
said and i quote
” An examination can only change your result
but cannot change your destiny”.
Surely, it is better to fail an examination and
bring Glory to God. Just like in the days of
daniel, the 3 Hebrew men and so many others.
Do not forsake the LORD because of an
examination. 2chronicle15vs2b
” the LORD is with you when you are with him,
if you seek him he will be found by you, but if
you forsake him, he will forsake you.”
I give Glory to God whom by his grace you
were able to read this write up till this point.
Thank you.
Remain in his love by obeying his command.
Remember NEVER WALK THE PATH YOU
WALK ALONE, WALK IT WITH God.
Dont participate in exam malpractice because it is a sin since it compromises the integrity of an exam . God is against it!

what a young teenage girl learnt from losing her virginity


In our society today virginity is underated, some look down on teenage girls that are still virgins especially when they start getting older but still prefer to remain virgins, some girls hate to see other girls that are virgins especially if they have lost their own but if you are still a virgin be proud of it because no matter what this jet age thinks virginity is still very important!

Below is a post of what a young innocent girl learnt from losing her virginity.

  1. Many teenage girls sleep with guys because
    they are trying to find love, to find self-worth.
    But the catch is that the more guys they sleep
    with, the less self-worth they had.
  2. Many girls think that if they really care
    about guys, s’εx will bring them closer
    together. Indeed, sεx creates a bond. However,
    80 percent of the time, the physical int!macy
    of first sεxμal relationship won’t last more
    than six months.
  3. Couples who want what is best for their
    relationship or future marriage will have the
    patience to wait.
  4. Most of the time, when a girl gives away
    her virg!nity, she assumes the relationship will
    last forever. But study of more than 10,000
    women shows that when a girl loses her virg!
    nity at that age at 14, she’ll probably have
    about thirteen more lifetime sεxμal partners.
  5. Teen s’εx frequently causes tension within
    families because of the dishonesty that
    usually accompanies the hidden int!macies.
    Relationships with friends are often strained,
    and when things turn sour, the gossip and
    social problems often become unbearable.
  6. Everyone talks about how hard it is to say
    no to s’εx, but no one tells you how hard it is
    when you say yes.
  7. It is dangerous for a teenage girl to be
    sεxμally active. Because a teenage girl’s
    reproductive system is still immature, she is
    very susceptible to sεxμally transmitted
    diseases.
  8. In fact, early sεxμal activity is the number
    one risk factor for cervical cancer, and the
    second is multiple sεxμal partners. A girl’s
    body, like her heart, is not designed to handle
    multiple sεxμal partners.
    9.While a girl might plan on slεεping with
    only one guy, she could be exposing herself to
    the STDs of hundreds of people through a
    single act of intεrcoμrsε. Here’s how:
    Scientists studied the sεxμal activity of a
    public high school of about one thousand
    students. About half (573) of the students had
    been sεxμally active, and most of them had
    only been with one partner. However, when the
    scientists
    tracked the web of sεxμal activity among the
    students, it was discovered that more than
    half of the sεxμally active teens—without
    knowing it were linked together in a network
    of 288 partners within the school! So if a girl
    slept with a guy from this school, theoretically
    she could be in bεd with one-fourth of the
    entire student body.
    10.The emotional side effects of premarital
    s’εx are also damaging to a young woman.
    One of the most common consequences of
    teenage sεxμal activity is depression. Girls
    who are sεxμally active are more than three
    times as likely to be depressed as girls who
    are abstinent. In fact, the condition has
    become so predictable that the Journal of
    Preventive Medicine recommends to doctors:
    “[Girls who are engaging in] sεxμal intεrcoμrsε
    should be screened for depression, and
    provided with anticipatory guidance about the
    mental health risks of these behaviours. ”Even
    if a girl experiments with s’εx once, research
    shows an increased risk of depression. Also,
    consider the fact that the rate of suicide
    attempts for sεxμally active girls (aged twelve
    to sixteen) is six times higher than the rate for
    virg!ns.
  9. Unfortunately, many young women search
    for meaning only in relationships with guys,
    instead of with God. It is not uncommon for a
    girl to have s’εx in order to make a guy like
    her more or to encourage him to stay with her.
    She may compromise her standards because
    she is afraid of never being loved. Once he
    leaves her, though, an emotional divorce takes
    place. A person’s heart is not made to be that
    close to a person and then separated.
  10. Since teenage sεxμal relationships rarely
    last, the girl’s sense of self-worth is often
    damaged. She may conclude that if she looked
    better, he would have stayed longer. This
    mentality can lead to harmful practices, such
    as eating disorders. Or the disappointment she
    feels may drive her into a state of self-hatred.
    Some young women even begin to hurt their
    own bodies in an attempt to numb the
    emotional pain. Such practices never solve the
    problems, though. If she wants to be loved,
    she needs to begin by loving herself.
  11. In her heart, a girl who has been used
    knows it. However, she may immediately jump
    into another sεxμal relationship to escape the
    hurt. If she tries to boost her self-esteem by
    giving guys what they want, then her self-
    worth often ends up depending upon those
    kinds of relationships. Her development as a
    woman is stunted because without chastity
    she does not know how to express affection,
    appreciation, or attraction for a guy without
    implying something sεxμal. She may even
    conclude that a guy does not love her unless
    he makes sεxμal advances toward her. She
    knows that s’εx exists without int!macy, but
    she may forget that int!macy can exist without
    s’εx. A girl on this track usually feels
    accepted initially, but that acceptance lasts
    only as long as the physical plεasμrε.
  12. Such a lifestyle will also take its toll on
    her ability to bond. Here’s why: Sharing the
    gift of s’εx is like putting a piece of tape on
    another person’s arm. The first bond is strong,
    and it hurts to remove it. Shift the tape to
    another person’s arm, and the bond will still
    work, but it will be easier to remove. Each
    time this is done, part of each person remains
    with the tape. Soon it is easy to remove
    because the residue from the various arms
    interferes with the tape’s ability to stick.
  13. The same is true in relationships, because
    neurologists have discovered that previous
    sεxμal experiences can interfere with one’s
    ability to bond with future partners. This does
    not mean that if a person is not a virg!n on
    the wedding night, he or she will be unable to
    bond with a spouse. It simply means that
    when we follow God’s plan, we have the most
    abundant life possible. But when we turn from
    his designs and break his commandments,
    often we are the ones who feel broken
    afterwards.
    16 Spiritual. Sin cuts us off from God, and this
    is the most serious consequence of premarital
    s’εx. After going too far, many of us know all
    too well the cloud of guilt that weighs on our
    hearts. The solution is not to kill our
    conscience but to follow it to freedom. It is
    calling us, not condemning us. Provided we
    repent, God will be there to welcome us home
    and let us start over.
    What this all means is that our bodies, our
    hearts, our relationships, and our souls are
    not made for premarital s’εx. We should wait
    to have s’εx.