Humans must colonize mars & the moon to avoid extinction | Astrophysicist

Humans must colonize mars & the moon to avoid extinction | Astrophysicist.

Astrophysicist Stephen Hawking has warned that the human race must soon start colonizing the moon and Mars to avoid being wiped out by climate change and overpopulation.
“I am convinced that humans need to leave the Earth,” said the renowned cosmologist during a speech at the Storms science festival in Trondheim, Norway, where he urged against humanity becoming a “cosmic sloth,” reports The Telegraph.
“The Earth is becoming too small for us, our physical resources are being drained at an alarming rate,” said Hawking. “We have given our planet the disastrous gift of climate change, rising temperatures, the reducing of the polar ice caps, deforestation and decimation of animal species.”
When we have reached similar crisis in or history there has usually been somewhere else to colonize,” Hawking explained. “Columbus did it in 1492 when he discovered the new world. But now there is no new world. No utopia around the corner. We are running out of space and the only places to go to are other worlds.”
“The human race has existed as a separate species for about 2 million years,” said Hawking, reports Fox News. “Civilization began about 10,000 years ago, and the rate of development has been steadily increasing. If humanity is to continue for another million years, our future lies in boldly going where no one else has gone before.”

Check out photo of NASA’s Quiet Supersonic Transport (QueSST) aircraft

Check out photo of NASA’s Quiet Supersonic Transport (QueSST) aircraft.
  Check out photo of  NASA's Quiet Supersonic Transport (QueSST) aircraft
NASA has been developing new designs for supersonic aircraft, with a specific focus on reducing the strength of the sonic booms — the sound created by a shock wave from an aircraft that moves faster than the speed of sound. The shape and overall design of a supersonic plane are particularly important for minimizing the loudness of the boom during flight.
“The idea is to design the airplane so that the shockwaves that are produced in supersonic flight are arranged in such a way that you don’t have a boom, you have just a kind of general, gradual pressure rise, which produces a quiet sound,” Peter Coen, commercial supersonic technology project manager, said in a video from NASA’s Langley Research Center.
QueSST is the preliminary design stage of NASA’s Low Boom Flight Demonstration (LBFD) experimental airplane, also known as an X-plane. So far, a scale model of QueSST has been tested in an 8-by-6-foot supersonic wind tunnel at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland. The next phase will be to test the technologies in flight, Coen said in the video.
“So to do that, we’re building an X-plane design and the eventual Low Boom Flight Demonstration aircraft that represents the boom of a larger airplane,” Coen added. “The idea is to prove the technology; show how robust it is in a variety of atmospheric conditions, but ultimately to prove that the sound that is created is acceptable to people on the ground.”
Last week, QueSST was reviewed by NASA engineers, as well as experts from the Lockheed Martin Corp. — the lead contractor NASA partnered with in February 2016 to create the initial design of the supersonic aircraft. The teams concluded that “the QueSST design is capable of fulfilling the LBFD aircraft’s mission objectives, which are to fly at supersonic speeds — 1.4 times the speed of sound — but create a soft ‘thump’ instead of the disruptive sonic boom associated with supersonic flight today,” according to a statement from NASA.

Snapchat acquires a friend location tracker app Zenly for $250M – $350M

Snapchat acquires a friend location tracker app Zenly for $250M – $350M

   Snapchat acquires a friend location tracker  app Zenly for $250M - $350M

S napchat’s newest feature, Snap Map, is based on its latest acquisition, social mapping startup Zenly. TechCrunch has learned that Snapchat has bought Zenly for between $250 million and $350 million in mostly cash and some stock in a deal that closed in late May. Snapchat will keep Zenly running independently, similar to how Facebook lets Instagram run independently.
Zenly’s app lets users see where their friends currently are on a map using constant GPS in the background. People can then message these friends in the app to make plans to hang out.
The Paris-based startup’s app has 4 million downloads according to Sensor Tower , with 28% from France but also sizeable numbers in Asia including 12% in South Korea and 8% in Japan. The app is mostly used by teens trying to keep up with their friends around town, at school, or at concerts and other events. Zenly had raised $35.1 million, including a $22.5 million Series B in September 2016 led by prestigious Silicon Valley venture capital firm Benchmark.
Zenly’s social map on the left looks extremely similar to Snapchat’s new Snap Map on the right… because Snap acquired Zenly
This morning, Snapchat launched its Snap Map location-sharing and location-based content discovery feature. It works slightly differently, only pulling your location when you open the app, but otherwise looks so similar to Zenly that we suspected Snapchat had copied it. Sources told us Snap expressed acquisition interest, but Zenly initially rejected them.
After more digging, we’ve learned from sources close to the deal that Snapchat did in fact acquire Zenly. A Zenly terms of service change on May 25th may be related to the deal. A Snapchat employee has also been spotted retweeting people congratulating Zenly’s founders.
Rather than shutting down Zenly and folding it into Snapchat, Snap Inc. will allow Zenly to run somewhat autonomously. We asked Snap, but it declined to comment, and Zenly hasn’t returned our inquiries. Instead, here’s TechCrunch’s
interview with Zenly CEO Antoine Martin at Disrupt London last year.
With both Snap Map and Zenly, Snap Inc. is hedging its bets in the social content space. Because its Snapchat Stories feature is being aggressively copied by Instagram and Facebook’s other apps, Snapchat is wise to expand into the social utility space of helping people meet up offline. Now Snap could own two different apps on people’s home screens.
Making plans with friends involves a high degree of intent — about what people want to eat or do — there are plenty of advertising and partnership opportunities down the line. You could imagine restaurants, movie studios and more hoping to hit Zenly or Snap Map users with ads as they plan to go out with friends.
Zenly’s app features
While $250 million to $350 million may seem like a lot to pay for Zenly, Snapchat has seen many of its other expensive acquisitions turn out well . It bought Looksery for $150 million in cash and bonuses, which went on to power its iconic augmented reality face filters. It bought Bitstrips for $64.2 million, which has flourished as Snapchat’s Bitmoji personalized avatar stickers. Story Search, QR Snapcodes and its Spectacles glasses were all based off its acquisitions of Vurb, and Vergence Labs, respectively.
Zenly doesn’t seem to fit with Snap’s mission to be a camera company. But buying an app for meeting up with friends could let Snapchat own the path to doing the things worth capturing on camera.
Snapchat acquires social map app Zenly for $250M to $350M

How artificial intelligence imparts our lives

We are on the verge of a technological revolution that will fundamentally alter the way we live, work, and relate to one another unlike anything humankind has experienced before. The main driver for this technological revolution is Artificial Intelligence (AI).
Technological change driven by AI will change not only what we do but also who we are. It will affect our identity and all the issues associated with it: our sense of privacy, our notions of ownership, our consumption patterns, the time we devote to work and leisure, and how we develop our careers, cultivate our skills, and nurture relationships. But the development and applications of artificial intelligence can also present a dystopian threat to our collective and individual well being.
What is Artificial Intelligence?
From SIRI to self-driving cars, artificial intelligence (AI) is progressing rapidly. While science fiction often portrays AI as robots with human-like characteristics, AI can encompass anything from Google’s search algorithms to IBM’s Watson to autonomous robots and weapons systems.
Artificial intelligence today is often referred to as narrow AI (or weak AI), which is designed to perform a narrow task (eg:facial recognition or only internet searches or driving a car). The other kind of Artificial Intelligence is termed general AI (AGI or strong AI) which is designed to “think,” and solve problems much like humans. While narrow AI may outperform humans at a specific task is, like playing chess or solving equations, AGI would outperform humans at nearly every cognitive task.
Artificial intelligence involves the attempt to make machines think in the way humans do. The famous Turing Test is a test for intelligence in a computer, requiring that a human being should be unable to distinguish the machine from another human being by using the replies to questions put to both. Arthur Samuel, a pioneer in the field of Artificial Intelligence, defined machine learning as “the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed.” Machine Learning at its most basic is the practice of using algorithms to parse data, learn from it, and then make a conclusion or prediction.
Robots are autonomous or semi-autonomous machine applications of Artificial Intelligence that can act independently of external commands. Robots make use of artificial intelligence to improve their autonomous functions by learning. However, it is also common for robots to be designed with no capability to self-improve.
There are at least 33 types of Artificial Intelligence, examples of which you can read about at this link.
Artificial Intelligence and the Internet of Things (IoT)
Think of all the “smart” devices that exist in our world from phones to appliances and even entire buildings. These devices are all connected through the “cloud” to the Internet, with the capability of communicating with each other.
An estimated 25 billion connected “things” will be in use by 2020. 65% of approximately 1,000 global business executives surveyed say they agree organizations that leverage the internet of things will have a significant advantage. The IoT market is predicted to grow to $1.7 trillion by 2020, marking a compound annual growth rate of 16.9%.
Technology author Anthony D. Williams argues, “Virtually every animate and inanimate object on Earth could be generating and transmitting data, including our homes, our cars, our natural and man-made environments, and yes, even our bodies.”
The Dark Side of Artificial Intelligence
The question of the possibility of AI becoming malevolent or destructive has been raised. Experts think two scenarios most likely:
The AI device or program does something destructive: For example, autonomous weapons that are programmed to kill.
The AI is programmed to do something beneficial, but it develops a destructive method for achieving its goal: For example, an AI system is tasked with a ambitious geoengineering project, but it might wreak havoc with our ecosystem as a side effect, and view human attempts to stop it as a threat to be met.
In a paper published in the journal Science Robotics, researchers Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt, and Luciano Floridi point out that policing robotics is extremely difficult. And as artificial intelligence becomes more widespread, it’s going to become a greater problem for society.
In 2015, Elon Musk donated $10 million to, as reported in Wired magazine, “to keep A.I. from turning evil.” Musk, Bill Gates and Stephen Hawking have all issued warnings of the dark side of Artificial Intelligence, if we fail to control its development.
Artificial Intelligence Research and Applications
New “deep learning” artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms are showing promise in performing medical work which until recently was thought only capable of being done by human physicians. For example, deep learning algorithms have been able to diagnose the presence or absence of tuberculosis (TB) in chest x-ray images with astonishing accuracy.
Researchers at Google were able to train an AI to detect spread of breast cancer into lymph node tissue on microscopic specimen images with accuracy comparable to (or greater than) human pathologists. Similarly, neural networks have shown to be (slightly) better than human physicians at detecting changes of diabetes in images of patient’s retinas. In other words, these early investigations into deep learning medical AI demonstrate that the algorithms can do as well as (if not better than) expert human physicians in some fields of medical diagnosis and prognosis.
Here’s a sample of the kinds of AI research and applications that either currently exist or are in development:
Researchers at Vanderbilt, Virginia Tech and Yale universities have discovered that brain scans can reveal a criminal suspect’s ‘state of knowledge’ (shades of the movie Minority Report);
Despite the common preconception that creating emotionally intelligent computers is something that won’t happen until far into the future, computers can already augment — and in some cases even replace — emotional intelligence Sony has announced plans to create customer service robots that will develop emotional bonds with customers; And apps like Cogito use AI to guide human agents in using more emotional intelligence as they work with customers;
AI versions of therapists have accurately predicted suicidal patients, depressive behavior, and criminality;
Scientists at the University of Oxford have developed software that can read lips correctly 93.4 per cent of the time – a level that far surpasses the best professionals;
In a significant step forward for artificial intelligence, Alphabet’s hybrid system — called a Differential Neural Computer (DNC) or DeepMind, is now capable of teaching itself based on information it already possesses;
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has upgraded its approach to surveillance by focusing on a new “technology-first” strategy that sees it using deep learning, neural networks to scan big data in order to predict when and where trouble is likely to occur in the US;
DeepMind’s AlphaGo Artificial Intelligence has won the final match of the Go series against world champion Lee Sedol. The 3,000-year-old Chinese board game has proved notoriously hard to master for AI developers due to the sheer number of possible moves;
Australian scientists have built an artificial intelligence system that can predict whether or not you will die soon by looking at images of your organs with about 69% accuracy.
For an expanded description of 59 things Artificial Intelligence can do, go here.
The word “Robotics” was first used by Isaac Asimov, an acclaimed science fiction writer. Asimov also devised the “Three Laws of Robotics” that define how robots should interact with humans.
We can define a robot as “any automatically operated machine that replaces human effort, though it may not resemble human beings in appearance or perform functions in a humanlike manner.” A robot designed specifically to look and act like a human, particularly if it has an external skin-like surface and facial expressions is called an Android.
China is already the world’s largest producer of industrial robots, supplying about 27% of the global market since 2015. It’s also the largest buyer of robots.
Here are some examples of the research and use of robots currently:
Researchers are working to build humanoid robots that can sense the world and give robots human-level navigation abilities. The robots will use a combination of tactile sensors, gyroscopes, cameras, and microphones to enhance their sensing abilities and use that data to understand the world;
Scientists created fleshy “bio-bots” made of living cells which can wriggle and walk. FEDOR — short for Final Experimental Demonstration Object Research — is a humanoid robot developed by Android Technics and the Advanced Research Fund. The multi-talented bot can drive a car, use various tools (including keys), screw in light bulbs, and even do pushups. It has also proven capable of working in extreme conditions. Now, FEDOR has added shooting handguns to its skill set;
China’s new robot police officers have started patrolling streets. The E-Patrol Robot Sheriff is able to track and follow potential criminals or suspicious people via facial recognition, according to the Economic Daily. Besides fighting crime, the robot officer is also capable of monitoring air quality and temperature, and is supposed to be able to track potential criminal activity, safety hazards and potential fires. Dubai’s government is introducing a “new fleet of intelligent police androids” that will be patrolling streets, malls and other crowded public spaces in 2017;
The U.S. Defense Department is designing robotic fighter jets that would fly into combat alongside manned aircraft. It has tested missiles that can decide what to attack, and it has built ships that can hunt for enemy submarines, stalking those it finds over thousands of miles, without any help from humans;
Sometimes referred to as “cloud robotics,” networks of robots are already teaching one another about what they learn as they interact with the world. This co-evolution could occur rapidly and enable robots to quickly become even more physically and mentally capable of engaging with the world than any single human being;
The company, Soul Machines, has created a virtual chatbot called Nadia that can not only portray human emotion, but also read human facial expressions.
A new Tokyo hotel staffed mostly by robots and automatons, has recently opened. Nine types of robots help with check-ins, clean the lobby, and entertain guests;
Researchers at the University of Utah have developed a surgery-assisting robot capable of performing complex brain surgeries. The machine can reduce the time of surgeries by cutting down the time it takes to cut into the skull from two hours to two and a half minutes;
A company, PassivDom, uses a 3D printing robot that can print the walls, roof, and floor of a 380-square-foot model home in about eight hours. When complete, the homes are autonomous and mobile, meaning they don’t need to connect to external electrical and plumbing systems;
Harmony is a sexbot – a silicone sex robot with artificial intelligence (AI) who looks human, feels human and responds in an eerily human way.
Artificial intelligence, Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR)
Virtual reality (VR), which can be referred to as immersive multimedia or computer-simulated reality, replicates an environment that simulates a physical presence in places in the real world or an imagined world, allowing the user to interact in that world. Virtual reality is the umbrella term for all immersive experiences, which could be created using purely real-world content, purely synthetic content or a hybrid of both. CG VR is an immersive experience created entirely from computer-generated content. CG VR can be either pre-rendered and therefore not reactive—in this way it is very similar to 360° video—or rendered in real time using a games engine. Augmented reality (AR) is a live, direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data.
VR headsets—such as Sony’s Morpheus, or Facebook’s Oculus Rift—block out the surrounding world and, making use of an old trick called stereoscopy, show slightly different images of each to a user’s eyes. That fools his brain into creating an illusion of depth, transforming the pair of images into a single experience of a fully three-dimensional world. Motion trackers, either mounted on the headset or externally, keep track of the users’ head, updating the view as he moves it around; optional hand controllers allow him to interact with virtual objects. The result is a reasonably convincing illusion of being somewhere else entirely.
Augmented reality, by contrast, does not dispense with the real world, but uses computers to improve it in various ways. AR, by design, maintains its users’ connection with the real world, and that means that a headset is not necessary. Heads-up displays are an early example of AR, but there are others: VeinViewer, for instance, is a medical device that projects images of a patients’ veins onto his skin, to help doctors aim injections.
Google has developed Expeditions, a virtual reality platform built for classrooms. Students can use Cardboard to take guided tours of famous cities like Barcelona, Spain, or inaccessible places like space.
The Virtual Reality Medical Center (VRMC)
specializes in VR exposure therapy, particularly in the treatment of fear of flying. The center utilizes a real, repurposed commercial airliner seat. Patients undergoing psychotherapy are belted into the seat and equipped with a head-mounted display, at which point they are taken through the entire experience of a flight, from take-off to safe landing.
Artificial Intelligence and Cybersecurity
Cyberspace is an increasingly hostile environment. In 2015, a PwC study of U.S. organizations found that 79 percent of respondents had detected a security incident during the year.Cyber-attackers are leveraging automation technology to launch strikes, while
many organizations are increasingly using AI to aggregate internal security findings and contextualizing them with external threat information. Unveiled to the world in April, AI-Squared is a collaborative project between MIT’s Computer Science and AI Laboratory (CSAIL) and a machine-learning startup known as PatternEx. Its function – to identify cyber-attacks.
Artificial Intelligence and the New Workplace
AI technology is and will continue to be a major disruptor in the workplace and jobs. In January 2016, the World Economic Forum released a report predicting AI, machine learning, and other nascent technologies will spur a so-called “Fourth Industrial Revolution” that replaces 5.1 million jobs by 2020. According to the report, jobs across every industry and every geographical region in 15 of the world’s largest economies — Australia, Brazil, Germany, China, Japan, the UK and the US, among others — will be affected. Six jobs are eliminated for every robot introduced into the workforce, a new study says.
In 2013, Oxford University researchers In a published paper titled: “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerization”
C.B. Frey and M.A. Osborne, researchers at Oxford University, created a model that calculates the probability of substituting a worker in a given sector. Frey and Osborne conclude machines may replace 47% of active workers in the future. Of 1,896 prominent scientists, analysts, and engineers questioned in a recent Pew survey on the future of jobs, 48% of them said the AI revolution will be a permanent job killer on a vast scale. The Bank of England has warned that within the coming decades as many as 80 million jobs in the U.S. could be replaced by robots.
A team of researchers led by Katja Grace of Oxford University’s Future of Humanity Institute
surveyed several hundred machine-learning experts to get their educated guess. The researchers used the responses to calculate the median number of years it would take for AI to reach key milestones in human capabilities. Overall, the respondents believe there is a 50% chance that AI beats humans at all tasks in 45 years and will automate all human jobs within 120 years. Experts believe artificial intelligence will be better than humans at all tasks within 45 years, according to a new report.
One of the surprises of AI in the last 50 years is that people thought we would start by automating the trivial things, like construction work or cleaning toilets and the hardest things would be what doctors and lawyers do. It actually turns out to be exactly the opposite. Doctors and lawyers are much easier to automate than street sweepers.
Obviously, the major question we must answer is what will people do if large numbers of jobs are taken by Artificial Intelligence programs or robots? Millions of white-collar workers could now be at risk according to politicians and business leaders meeting at the World Economic Forum. In his book, Rise of the Robots, Martin Ford describes the social and economic disruption that is likely to result when educated workers can no longer find employment.
Futurist Jeremy Rifkin contends we are entirely a new phase in history, one characterized by a steady and inevitable decline of jobs. He says the world of work is being polarized into two forces: One, an information elite that controls the global economy; and the other, a growing number of displaced workers.
AI and Management in Organizations
In the years ahead, everyone from doctors, lawyers and scientists to journalists, will find themselves working with, and may be replaced by Artificial Intelligence machines. Computers are becoming increasingly capable of making decisions, taking complex actions, and performing “knowledge work.”
An Economist special report, “The Future of Jobs,” described how entire professions will be impacted through automation and AI. Accounting and auditing examples of business functions which can increasingly be done by expert AI systems, putting these professions at risk, at least in their current form. Middle management decision making processes based on financials are similarly capable of being driven by AI algorithms.
At a Rotterdam School of Management (RSM)
Leadership Summit on Big Data, an expert panel briefly discussed the implications of AI advances in terms of management. As an example, airline autopilots were raised as a domain where computer decision making surpasses human decision making. Similarly, with rapid advances in computer driven automobiles, such as Google car, we are now within generational sight of the obsolescence of human drivers.
Managers might like to believe that they have better hiring judgment than a computer, but a
working paper (paywall) from the National Bureau of Economic Research suggests otherwise. The researchers looked at the employment record of 300,000 low-skill service sector workers across 15 companies. The jobs had low retention rates, with the average worker lasting just 99 days, but researchers found that employees stayed in the job 15% longer when an algorithm was used to judge their employability.
Which white collar professions may be immune to AI and automation? In essence, professions which help people find and pursue ‘meaning’ and fulfillment will be increasingly necessary. For example, ‘divinity consultants’ may work with people to help connect them to a religious tradition to which they will develop a personal connection. And imagine ‘leisure time advisors’ and ‘experience orchestrators’ – a hypothetical mixture of tourism specialist, hobby advisor, and therapist. Leisure time is increasingly a precious resource for which technology will compete for attention. Those who can manage the connection of personal desires and
happiness to new technical possibilities will be in demand. But traditional jobs that are routinized and susceptible to algorithms can be replaced by AI and robots.
A study from the Human-Computer Interaction Lab at the University of Manitoba, suggests that you’ll probably obey a robot boss nearly as predictably as you would a human. The researchers found humans willing to take orders from computers, but much less readily from other humans.
McKinsey’s Rik Kirkland, Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee argue senior managers are far from obsolete. As machine learning progresses at a rapid pace, top executives will be called on to create the innovative new organizational forms needed to crowd source the far-flung human talent that’s coming online around the globe. Those executives will have to emphasize their creative abilities, their leadership skills, and their strategic thinking to a much greater degree.
AI sophistication will expand into many HR functions. For example, Jobaline, a job-placement site, uses intelligent voice analysis algorithms to evaluate job applicants. The algorithm assesses paralinguistic elements of speech, such as tone and inflection, predicts which emotions a specific voice will elicit, and identifies the type of work at which an applicant will likely excel.
Advances in technology are causing firms to restructure their organizational makeup, transform their HR departments, develop new training models, and reevaluate their hiring practices. This is according to Deloitte’s 2017 Human Capital Trends Report, which draws on surveys from over 10,000 HR and business leaders in 140 countries. Many of these changes are a result of the early penetration of basic AI software, as well as preparation for the organizational needs that will emerge as they mature.
A survey done by the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on the Future of Software and Society shows people expect artificial intelligence machines to be part of a company’s board of directors by 2026.
A report by MIT published in Sloan Review makes this provocative statement: “An inevitable shift in which a parent-to-child way of looking at the relationship between the manager and his or her team would be questioned and ultimately superseded by an adult-to-adult form. The nexus of this more adult relationship concerns how commitments are made and how information is shared. When technology enables many people to have more information about themselves and others, it’s easier to take a clear and more mature view of the workplace. Self-assessment tools, particularly those that enable people to diagnose what they do and how they do it, can help employees pinpoint their own productivity issues. They have less need for the watchful eyes of a manager.” One could easily imagine that the “the end of management” is in sight — crushed by peer feedback, pushed out by specialist roles, disintermediated by powerful platforms, and exposed by social network analysis.
The Universal Basic Income
One of the possible solutions to the massive unemployment that could result from the implementation of Artificial Intelligence in the workplace is the institution of a “Universal Basic Income,” in which all citizens or residents of a country regularly receive a regular, unconditional sum of money, either from a
government or some other public institution, in addition to any income received from elsewhere. And it would replace the current system of social welfare payments.
Finland, France, and Canada have already approved pilot tests for government-provided universal basic income, something Elon Musk has said will be an inevitable necessity as A.I. spreads. Basic income has been tested for decades. Last month, Finland voted to give the system a try starting in 2016. In the Netherlands, it has been spreading rapidly since the Dutch city of Utrecht launched an experimental program earlier this summer. The US even tested out a system in the 1960s under the Nixon administration, although the experiment eventually fizzled. But just recently the state of Hawaii passed legislation for the Universal Basic Income for state residents. For four years, in the small Canadian town of Dauphin, residents making less than $13,800 annually were given $4,800 per year to supplement their income. During this time, the population saw a decline in the number of mental health-related visits to the doctor and fewer hospital admissions due to “accident and injury,” as well as few mental health diagnoses in general. These findings were also corroborated by a similar program implemented nearly two decades later on Cherokee land in the United States.
French policy analysts Nicolas Colin and Bruno Palier recommend that other countries adopt the Nordic model of “flexicurity” in which benefits are decoupled from jobs. By guaranteeing access to health care, housing and training, “people won’t be so terrified of switching jobs or losing a job,” they say in another Foreign Affairs piece.
Tesla CEO Elon Musk, Y Combinator President Sam Altman, and Facebook Cofounder Chris Hughes have all endorsed basic income. (Altman and Y Combinator are leading a basic-income trial in Oakland, California).
Artificial Intelligence and Education
To a significant degree, the Artificial Intelligence revolution will make obsolete, or at least, require us to rethink the current system of education and workplace training and development.
“In next century, schools as we know them will no longer exist,” says a feature in The Age publication, based in Melbourne, Australia. “In their place will be community-style centers operating seven days a week, 24 hours a day.” Computers will become an essential ingredient in the recipe for an effective school of the future. Students, The Age asserts, will see and hear teachers on computers, with “remote learning” the trend of tomorrow. Accessing “classrooms” on their home computers, students will learn at times most convenient for them. Yet some attendance at an actual school will be required to help students develop appropriate social skills.
In the 2011 book The Innovative University, Clayton Christensen, a professor of business administration at Harvard, argues that universities could be overtaken by competitors if they fail to adopt new technologies. Children need to learn social and emotional skills if they are to thrive in the workplace of the future, a World Economic Forum report has found.
The new research shows that as the digital economy transforms the workplace, Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) skills such as
collaboration, communication and problem solving will become ever more important as more traditional roles are mechanized. With more than half of children now entering school expected to work in jobs that don’t yet exist, adaptability is becoming a core skill.
A 48-page report titled “Preparing for the Future of Artificial Intelligence ” concludes it is time to stop thinking of higher education as an experience that people take part in once during their young lives — or even several times as they advance up the professional ladder — and begin thinking of it as a platform for lifelong learning. Colleges and universities need to be doing more to move beyond the array of two-year, four-year, and graduate degrees that most offer, and toward a more customizable system that enables learners to access the learning they need when they need it. This will be critical as more people seek to return to higher education repeatedly during their careers, compelled by the imperative to stay ahead of relentless technological change.
Here are some ways in which Artificial Intelligence will have a huge impact on both the structure and delivery of higher education:
AI can create unique learning pathways for individual learners in MOOCs and blended and online learning;
AI could allow researchers to bring together vast amounts of data for the benefit of learners and advancement of knowledge;
AI could provide the opportunity for global classrooms and connect learners globally;
Intelligent Tutor Systems also can provide timely guidance, feedback and explanations to the learner and can promote productive learning behaviors, such as self-regulation, self-monitoring, and self-explanation. Furthermore, Intelligent Tutor Systems can also prescribe learning activities at the level of difficulty and with the content most appropriate for the learner;
AI can help organize and synthesize content to support content delivery. Known as deep learning systems, technology can read, write and emulate human behavior. For example, Dr. Scott R. Parfitt’s Content Technologies, Inc. (CTI) enables educators to assemble custom textbooks. Educators import a syllabus and CTI’s engine populates a textbook with the core content;
Leading-edge technologies like wearable devices, apps, and virtual reality can also improve SEL skills. Wearables are already being used to help students manage their emotions and build communication skills, while virtual reality can be used to take children on virtual field trips that build curiosity and improve critical thinking;
In recent years, thanks to online services, students have been able to get help from peers thousands of miles away. Now with the help of AI and Machine Learning, finding remote help is becoming even easier. Brainly, a social network that helps millions of students collaborate, is exploring the power of AI on its platform.
Artificial Intelligence and Training and Development
In the future of work, the most important skill is to be able to learn how to learn. The amount of knowledge available and the skills needed to be successful in the workplace are constantly changing, and the best employees know how to find the information they need and continually be honing their skills to be at the top of their game.
The corporate training market, which is over $130 billion in size, is about to be disrupted. Companies are starting to move away from their Learning Management Systems (LMS), buy all sorts of new tools for digital learning, and rebuild a whole new infrastructure to help employees learn. Programs such as GSuite, Microsoft Teams, Slack, and Workplace by Facebook are growing quickly. Axonify and Qstream can “space learning” based on your job and prescribe small nuggets just as needed. This is pushing vendors like Workday, Oracle, SuccessFactors, SumTotal and others are now reinventing the LMS — focusing on developing video-learning platforms that feel more like YouTube than an educational course catalog.
Deloitte Human Capital Trends’ newest research shows that “reinventing careers and learning” is now the #2 issue in business (followed only by reorganizing the company for digital business), creating urgency and budget in this area.
Walmart is betting big on virtual reality to help improve its employee training techniques, and it’s turned to a new company to help. TechCrunch is reporting that Walmart plans to install VR training platforms at each of its 200 Academy training centers across the U.S. by the end of the year. Each will have an Oculus Rift and a VR-ready PC to run it on.
Within the contemporary organization, staff-
coaching processes continue to evolve. This is achieved by migrating towards newer technologies and software systems that will adequately assist with a more dynamic mode of providing staff-training and development. Ari Kopoulos, writing for, says that “AI programs offer HR departments ways to train their staff, earn certifications, cross-train and learn new skills.” What is instinctive of AI-enriched software programs, is that they allow staff to engage in self-directed progress with their training, at their own comfortable pace. points out AI-enriched learning systems are now beginning to offer “customizable employee-related training based on individual performance”. The impact of advancements like this will be numerous: can you imagine the gratification to be gained from knowing that each employee in your organization has access to their ‘own personal mentor?
John Seely Brown, former Chief Scientist at Xerox and Director of its Palo Alto Research Center argues “We must re-invent the workplace as a ‘learningscape.’” He goes on to say that we should build urban learning initiatives such as “Cities of Learning’’—a new movement in which employers, libraries, and museums are wired together to help kids find their interests outside school and pick up new skills—or networks of partners in the corporate world. A powerful example of this kind of learning is the use of GitHub and/or other open source communities. Or another: A rather conservative company, SAP, created an extended open source network that has a couple million participants who are learning with and from each other.
Paul Rosenbloom, professor of computer science at the University of Southern California is beginning to apply his AI platform, Sigma, to the ICT’s Virtual Humans program, which creates interactive, AI-driven 3D avatars. A virtual tutor with emotion, for instance, could show genuine enthusiasm when a student does well and unhappiness if a student is slacking off. “If you have a virtual human that doesn’t exhibit emotions, it’s creepy. It’s called uncanny valley, and it won’t have the impact it’s supposed to have,” Rosenbloom says.
Both Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) have an important place in the Artificial Intelligence revolution as it applies to education, training and development. The practical applicability of virtual reality and augmented reality in eLearning is a hotly discussed topic right now. A recent report produced by Horizon 2016, one of the most respected analytical groups, dedicates a number of pages to the question of using augmented and virtual reality in education. For now, potential applications in the fields of physics and medicine show the most promise. This being said, what good can these newfangled technologies do? First of all, virtual reality can transport students to the farthest corners of the observable universe in the blink of an eye and immerse them in a deep and engaging educational environment. Great motivational potential is another major benefit. Which is cooler? To read pages upon pages of text accompanied by black and white illustrations, or to find yourself on Mars and gather soil samples by hand? By the way, that was a rhetorical question.
In Summary: As you can see from the brief descriptions of the developments in Artificial Intelligence, they will have an enormous impact our personal and work lives. In the process, there will be much disruption, but it’s unlikely we will be able to stop this Fourth Industrial Revolution. But it does provide us with the opportunity to address ethical, moral, legal and social issues, including a proactive role of government in ensuring these developments are for the benefit of people.
Copyright, 2017 by Ray Williams.

New antibiotic for drug resistant bacteria

Scientists have discovered a new antibiotic that is highly effective against bacteria resistant to known antimicrobials, which was found in a soil sample taken in Italy.
Named “pseudouridimycin,” or PUM, the new antibiotic is produced by a microbe found in the soil.
It has killed a wide range of bacteria in laboratory tests and cured mice infected with scarlet fever.
Details of the discovery were published on Thursday in the US scientific journal Cell.
Pseudouridimycin neutralises an enzyme called polymerase that is essential to virtually all functions of every organism.
However, it acts differently than rifampicin, a class of antibiotics used to target the same enzyme.
Its mechanism means the new antibiotic is 10 times less likely to trigger drug resistance than those currently on the market.
PUM killed 20 species of bacteria in experiments, proving especially effective against streptococci and staphylococci, several of which are resistant to multiple antibiotics.
Clinical trials with PUM could begin within three years and the new antibiotic could be released on the market in the next 10 years, researchers at New Jersey’s Rutgers-New Brunswick University and the Italian biotechnology company Naicons said.
The discovery showed again that bacteria found in the soil are the best source of new antibiotics, the scientists said.

successful penis transplant by south african doctors

South african doctors succeded in carrying out the world’s second penile transplant without any problem.
first successful penis transplant in south africa    by doctors
A team from Stellenbosch University (SU) and the Tygerberg Academic Hospital recently performed a second penis transplant, making it the first medical centre in the world to successfully perform this procedure twice.
This comes after the world’s first successful penis transplant was done in December 2014 at the same facility.
Prof André van der Merwe, Head of the Division of Urology at SU’s Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), led the marathon operation of nine and a half hours performed on 21 April.
The recipient was a 40-year-old male who had lost his penis 17 years ago due to complications after a traditional circumcision. His identity is being protected for ethical reasons.
No rejection
“He is certainly one of the happiest patients we have seen in our ward. He is doing remarkably well,” says Prof Van der Merwe.
“There are no signs of rejection and all the reconnected structures seem to be healing well.”
One of the team members Dr Amir Zarrabi says the first operation prepared them for the second one. “It was experimental, but now it is really scientific,” Zarrabi told Health24.
The patient is expected to regain all urinary and reproductive functions of the organ within six months of the transplant. A colour discrepancy between the recipient and the donor organ will be corrected with medical tattooing between six to eight months after the operation.
“Unfortunately we could not find a donor of the same race. In this case the donor is white and the recipient is black.”
Western Cape health minister Dr Nomafrench Mbombo called the procedure ground-breaking.
“This is a remarkable procedure. Traditional circumcision has claimed many young lives in South Africa. For this patient, life will never be the same again,” Dr Mbombo said.
The procedure
The entire penis was carefully dissected from the donor to keep blood vessels, nerves and other connecting structures intact. These were marked and connected to the recipient’s correlating tissue during the transplant.
The surgeons connected:
Three blood vessels (each between 1 and 2mm in diameter) to ensure sufficient blood flow to the transplanted organ;
Two dorsal nerves (also between 1 and 2mm in diameter) to restore sensation;
The urethra, which enables the recipient to urinate through the penis; as well as
The corpus cavernosum (cavernous body of the penis), which will allow the patient to obtain an erection.
“The diverse presentation of the blood vessels and nerves makes the operation very challenging and means each case is unique,” says one of the team members Dr Alexander Zühlke.
“All these structures need to be treated with the utmost delicacy and respect in order to be connected perfectly to ensure good circulation and function in the long term.
The requirement is that the donor must be brain-dead, but the heart must still be beating. “This is most effective way to make sure there is no rejection,” says Zarrabi.
Dr Zarrabi is confident that their success will lead to more successful operations in the future.
“The loss of a penis from traditional circumcision is big, and we want to create sustainable programmes to help these people.”

dementia & memory loss: causes ,effect and treatment

We all experience memory loss at one point or the other in our life. This article was written to show the major causes of memory loss which is also reffered to as dementia in extreme medical cases.
 dementia & memory loss: causes ,effect and treatment
Many people become forgetful as they become older. This is common and is often not due to dementia. There are also other disorders such as depression and an underactive thyroid that can cause memory problems. Dementia is the most serious form of memory problem. It causes a loss of mental ability, and other symptoms. Dementia can be caused by various disorders which affect parts of the brain involved with thought processes. Most cases are caused by Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, or dementia with Lewy bodies. Symptoms of dementia develop gradually and typically become worse over a number of years. The most important part of treatment for dementia is good-quality support and care for the person with dementia and for their carers. In some cases, treatment with medicines may be helpful.
What is memory loss and what are the causes?
Everybody forgets things from time to time. In general, the things that you tend to forget most easily are the things that you feel do not matter as much. The things that you tend to remember most easily are the things that are important to you – for example, a special birthday. However, some people just seem to have a better memory than others, and some people are more forgetful than others.
There are certain situations that can affect your memory and make you become more forgetful than you normally are. They can include the following.

1.Poor concentration
If your concentration is poor then you do not notice things as much, and do not retain things as much as you would normally. Poor concentration can be a result of simply being bored or tired. However, it can also be a symptom of depression and anxiety.

As well as poor concentration, some people with depression also have slowed thinking. This can cause memory problems until the depression clears. Do tell a doctor if you think that you are depressed, as treatment often works well. Other symptoms of depression include:
A low mood for most of the time
Loss of enjoyment and interest in life
Abnormal sadness
Feelings of guilt or of being useless
Poor motivation
Sleeping problems
Difficulty with affection
Poor appetite
Being irritable or restless

3.Physical illness
If you feel ill, this can affect concentration and memory. Certain illnesses can directly affect the way your brain works. For example, an underactive thyroid can slow down your body’s functions, including your brain, and can make you more forgetful. Infections such as a chest infection or a urine infection can also cause sudden confusion and memory problems, particularly in older people.

Certain medicines can cause confusion and memory problems in some people. For example, some sedative medicines, some painkilling medicines, some medicines that are used to treat Parkinson’s disease, or steroid medicines. Also, if you are taking lots of different medicines, this can increase the risk of them interacting with each other, causing problems, including confusion and memory problems.

As everyone gets older, it often becomes harder to remember things. This is called age-associated memory impairment. Many people over the age of 60 have this common problem, and it is not dementia. For example, it tends to be harder to learn new skills the older you become, or you may more easily forget the names of people you have recently met. It is thought that the more you use your brain when you are older, the more it may counter the development of this age-related decline in memory function. So, doing things such as reading regularly, quizzes, crosswords, memorising plays or poetry, learning new skills, etc, may help to keep your memory in good shape.
 dementia & memory loss: causes ,effect and treatment
Dementia is the most serious form of memory problem. The rest of this leaflet is just about dementia.
What is dementia?
Dementia is a condition of the brain which causes a gradual loss of mental ability, including problems with memory, understanding, judgement, thinking and language. In addition, other problems commonly develop, such as changes in personality and changes in the way a person interacts with others in social situations. As dementia progresses, a person’s ability to look after them self from day to day may also become affected. There are various causes of dementia.

What are the different causes of dementia?

Dementia can be caused by various diseases or disorders which affect the parts of the brain involved with thought processes. However, most cases are caused by Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). All these types of dementia cause similar symptoms but some features may point to a particular cause. However, it may not be possible to say what is causing the dementia in every case.

Alzheimer’s disease
This is the most common type of dementia, causing about half of all cases. It is named after the doctor who first described it. In Alzheimer’s disease the brain shrinks (atrophies) and the numbers of nerve fibres in the brain gradually reduce. The amount of some brain chemicals (neurotransmitters) is also reduced – in particular, one called acetylcholine. These chemicals help to send messages between brain cells. Tiny deposits called plaques also form throughout the brain. It is not known why these changes in the brain occur, or exactly how they cause dementia. Alzheimer’s disease gradually progresses (worsens) over time as the brain becomes more and more affected.

Blood vessel dementia (vascular dementia)
This causes about a quarter of all cases of dementia. It is due to problems with the small blood vessels in your brain. The most common type is called multi-infarct dementia. In effect, this is like having many tiny strokes, that otherwise go unrecognised, throughout the thinking part of the brain. A stroke occurs when a blood vessel blocks and stops the blood getting past. So, the section of brain supplied by that blood vessel is damaged or dies (an infarct occurs). After each infarct, some more brain tissue is damaged. So, a person’s mental ability gradually declines. Vascular dementia can also sometimes happen after a more major stroke.
The risk of developing vascular dementia is increased by the same things that increase the risk of stroke. For example: high blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol level, lack of exercise, etc. However, it is now thought that some of these vascular risk factors may also be involved in the development of Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia as well.

Lewy body dementia/dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)
This causes about 15 in every 100 cases of dementia. Lewy bodies are tiny abnormal protein deposits that develop in nerve cells in the brain of people with this condition. It is not clear why the Lewy bodies develop but they interfere with the normal working of the brain.
If Lewy bodies develop in a part of the brain called the brain stem, as well as symptoms of dementia, someone may also develop symptoms similar to Parkinson’s disease. For example, stiffness, slowness of movement and a shuffling walk with difficulty in starting, stopping, and in turning easily.
Mixed dementia
Some people can have a degree of two different types of dementia at the same time. For example, both Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, or both Alzheimer’s disease and DLB. This is known as mixed dementia. However, in most cases of mixed dementia, there is usually one of the causes for dementia that is thought to be the main (predominant) cause. In this situation, treatment is aimed at the predominant cause of dementia.
Other causes of dementia
There are over 60 diseases which can cause dementia. Many are rare and, in many, the dementia is just part of other problems and symptoms. In most cases the dementia cannot be prevented or reversed. However, in some disorders the dementia can be prevented, or stopped from getting worse if treated. For example, some cases of dementia are caused by alcohol abuse, infections such as syphilis, or some vitamin deficiencies, all of which can be treated.

Who gets dementia?

Dementia is a common problem. According to figures provided by the Alzheimer’s society, there are currently 800,000 people with dementia in the UK. There are estimated to be over a million by 2021. The older you are the higher chance there is of getting dementia. Between the age of 65 and 74, 1-2 people in 100 will have dementia. By the age of 95, a quarter of people will have it. However, dementia is not a normal part of ageing. It is different to the age-associated memory impairment that is common in older people. Rarely, dementia affects younger people. Dementia is said to be early-onset (or young-onset) if it comes on before the age of 65. There are some groups of people who are known to have a higher risk of developing dementia. These include people with:

Down’s syndrome or other learning disabilities. People with Down’s syndrome are more likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease.

Parkinson’s disease.
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease ( angina, heart attack, stroke and peripheral arterial disease). The risk factors for cardiovascular disease (high blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol level, lack of exercise, etc) are risk factors for all types of dementia, not just blood vessel dementia (vascular dementia).

A family history of dementia. There is a small extra risk of getting dementia if you have a mother, father or sibling with dementia. Dementia also seems to run in some families so there may be some genetic factors that can make someone more likely to develop dementia. We do know that a few of the more rare causes of dementia can be inherited (can be passed on through genes in your family).

Severe psychiatric problems such as
schizophrenia or severe depression. It is not clear why this is the case.
A past history of a head injury.

Lower intelligence. Some studies have shown that people with a lower IQ and also people who do not have very high educational achievement are more likely to develop dementia.
A limited social support network.

Low physical activity levels. A lack of physical activity can increase your risk of dementia.
  dementia & memory loss: causes ,effect and treatment

What are the main dementia symptoms?
The symptoms of all types of dementia are similar. They can be divided into three main areas:

Loss of mental ability
Memory problems are usually the most obvious symptom in people with dementia.

Forgetfulness is common. As a rule, the most recent events are the first forgotten. For example, a person with early stages of dementia might go to the shops and then cannot remember what they wanted. It is also common to misplace objects. However, events of the past are often remembered well until the dementia is severe. Many people with dementia can talk about their childhood and early life. As dementia progresses, sometimes memory loss for recent events is severe and the person may appear to be living in the past. They may think of themself as young and not recognise their true age.
Someone with dementia may not know common facts when questioned (such as the name of the Prime Minister). They may have difficulty remembering names or finding words. They may appear to be asking questions all the time.

Language problems can also develop. For example, someone with dementia may have difficulty understanding what is said to them or understanding written information. Problems with attention and concentration can also occur. It is common for someone with dementia not to be able to settle to anything and this can make them appear restless.
New surroundings and new people may confuse a person with dementia: they can become easily disorientated. However, in familiar places, and with old routines, they may function well. This is why some people with mild dementia cope well in their own homes. Losing track of time is also a common problem in someone with dementia. For example, not knowing if it is morning or afternoon, or what day it is. A person with dementia may get lost easily.
Even clever people who develop dementia find it difficult to grasp new ideas or learn new skills. For example, how to use a new household gadget. The ability to think, calculate and problem-solve can be affected as intellect begins to fail. Difficulties with planning and decision making can develop.
Changes in mood, behaviour and personality
At first, someone with dementia may appear to be easily irritated or moody. It is often family or friends who notice this. Some people with early dementia recognise that they are failing and become depressed. However, many people with dementia are not aware that they have it. They may remain cheerful. The distress is often felt more by relatives who may find it difficult to cope.
More challenging behaviour may develop in some people over time. Some people with dementia can also become agitated or even aggressive and this may be directed towards their carers. They may become suspicious or fearful of others. In some people, delusions (abnormal beliefs) and hallucinations (a false perception of something that is not really there) can occur. Visual hallucinations can be a common problem in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).
Mood, behaviour and personality changes may mean that someone with dementia is not able to interact with others in a social situation and they can become quite withdrawn. Sleep is often affected and pacing and restless wandering can become a problem for some.
Problems carrying out day-to-day activities
Difficulty with self-care usually develops over time. For example, without help, some people with dementia may not pay much attention to personal hygiene. They may forget to wash or change their clothes. Remembering to take medication can become an issue. The person may also have difficulty keeping up their home. Shopping, cooking and eating may become difficult. This can lead to weight loss. Driving may be dangerous and not possible for someone with dementia.
😃some people. In the beginning, symptoms are often put down to other causes. There may also be a degree of protection by friends, carers and relatives who help the person to look after themself and, by doing so, cover up the person’s inability.
Saying that, commonly, it is not the person with the symptoms but rather their relatives, carers or friends who have concerns that the person may have dementia. They may be concerned about the person’s memory or behaviour. However, people with a high intellect or a demanding job, may notice themselves that their mental ability is starting to fail.

Visit your doctor
The first step if you are concerned that you may be developing dementia is to see your doctor. Or, if you are worried that someone close to you may have dementia, you should encourage them to see their doctor. They may agree for you to see their doctor with them.
Your doctor may suggest some special tests to look at your memory and mental ability, to see whether dementia is likely or not. This does not take long and is usually a series of questions or other exercises that your doctor asks you to complete.
Your doctor may also suggest some routine tests to make sure that there are no other obvious causes for your symptoms. For example, blood tests to look for infection, vitamin deficiencies, an underactive thyroid gland, etc. If infection is suspected, they may suggest a urine test, a chest X-ray or other investigations. They may also ask questions to make sure that your symptoms are not due to, for example, depression, any medicines that you may be taking, or excess alcohol intake.
        dementia & memory loss: causes ,effect and treatment
There is no cure for dementia and no medicine that will reverse dementia. However, there are some medicines that may be used to help in some causes of dementia. Medication is generally used for two different reasons. Firstly, as treatment to help with symptoms that affect thinking and memory (cognitive symptoms). Secondly, as treatment to help with symptoms that affect mood and how someone behaves (non-cognitive symptoms).
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
These include donepezil , rivastigmine and
galantamine. They work by increasing the level of acetylcholine. This is a chemical in the brain that is low in people with Alzheimer’s disease. These medicines are not a cure for Alzheimer’s disease. However, they may help to treat some of the symptoms affecting thinking and memory in about half of people with Alzheimer’s disease.

Memantine is also licensed for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease in some people. It works by reducing the amount of a brain chemical called glutamate. It is thought that this may help to slow down the damage to brain cells affected by Alzheimer’s disease. Like the medicines above, this is not a cure. Some research studies have shown that it seems to slow down the progression of the symptoms in some cases.
Other medication
An antidepressant may be advised if depression is suspected. Depression is common in people with dementia and may be overlooked.
Aspirin and other medicines to treat the risk factors for stroke and heart disease may be appropriate for some people – especially those with vascular dementia.
Sleeping tablets are sometimes needed if difficulty sleeping is a persistent problem.
A tranquilliser or an antipsychotic medicine is sometimes prescribed as a last resort for people with dementia who become easily agitated.

Support and care is the most important part of treatment
When someone is diagnosed with dementia, a full assessment may be suggested to look at their practical skills, their ability to look after themself, their safety in their home, etc. This usually involves assessment by a number of different healthcare professionals (see below). An individual care plan may be drawn up that outlines the person’s specific needs. The aim is to maintain the independence of someone with dementia as much as possible and for as long as possible.
Most people with dementia are cared for in the community. Often, the main carer is a family member. It is important that carers get the full support and advice which is locally available. Support and advice may be needed from one or more of the following healthcare and allied professionals, depending on the severity of the dementia and the individual circumstances:
District nurses can advise on day-to-day nursing care.
Occupational therapists can advise on changes to the physical environment, which may help a person with dementia. For example, handrails and grab bars, labelling of objects, removing items that are not needed in the home.
Physiotherapists can help. For example, with exercises to help maintain mobility.
Community psychiatric nurses can advise on caring for people with mental illness. Sometimes a specialist assessment by a psychiatrist may be needed.
Social Services can advise on local facilities such as daycare centres, benefits, help with care in the home, sitting services, respite care, etc.
People who can advise on financial and legal matters, such as lasting power of attorney.
Voluntary organisations can be a good source of advice. If you care for a person with dementia, it is well worth getting information about the help that is available in your local area. In most areas of the UK there are organisations that provide support and advice for carers of people with dementia. Your local library or citizens advice bureau will often have contact details. Some organisations are also listed at the end of this leaflet.
The level of care and support needed often changes over time.

Other possible treatments
There are some other treatments and things that may be helpful for some people with dementia, particularly in certain situations. These include the following.
Measures to help simplify the daily routine and enhance memory may help some people. For example, planning out and writing down a daily routine. This may include writing reminders to do certain things such as putting the rubbish out, locking the door at night-time, etc. Making sure that clothing, keys, glasses or other things that are used often are put in prominent places where they can be found easily may also be helpful. Labelling of commonly used objects may be another useful tool. An occupational therapist may be able to advise.
Reality orientation is thought to help in some cases. This involves giving regular information to people with dementia about times, places, or people to keep them orientated. It may range from simple things such as having a board in a prominent place, giving details of the day, date, season, etc to staff in a residential home reorientating a person with dementia at each contact.
Cognitive stimulation (stimulating the brain) may help to improve memory, language and problem-solving ability. For example, by recreational activities, problem-solving activities, and talking to the person with dementia. In addition, recreational activities may enhance quality of life and well-being.
Regular physical activity, if possible, such as walking, dancing, etc, may help to slow down the decline in mobility that is common in people with dementia. It may also help if depression is a problem.
Reminiscence therapy may help in some cases. This involves encouraging people to talk about the past so that past experiences are brought into their current thoughts. It relies on long-term memory which is often quite good in people with mild-to-moderate dementia.
Cognitive behavioural therapy is sometimes tried to help treat depression that is quite common in people with dementia.
Behavioural therapy may also be used to treat any problems related to behaviour that someone with dementia may have. This type of therapy looks for possible reasons for certain behaviours. For example, someone who wanders a lot may in fact be doing this because they are feeling quite restless. In this situation, taking part in regular physical activity may help.
Animal-assisted therapy may sometimes be suggested to help people with dementia who have challenging behaviour such as agitation or aggression. For example, allowing the person to spend time with and interact with a trained dog.
Sensory stimulation – for example, using music, lights, sounds, smells, massage and aromatherapy to stimulate the brain. This may also be helpful for some people with dementia – for example, to improve their mood or feelings of restlessness.
Driving and dementia
Vehicle drivers who have been diagnosed with dementia are legally required to inform the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA). They may be able to continue driving a car or a motorcycle safely for some time. But they may be asked to have a driving test and/or their doctor may be asked to complete a medical report for the DVLA. If someone is able to continue to drive, this will usually be reviewed on a yearly basis. Someone who has been diagnosed with dementia will not be able to continue to drive a bus (or other vehicle that carries passengers) or a lorry or large goods vehicle.
Can dementia be prevented?
At present, there are no specific medicines or treatments that are definitely known to reduce your chance of developing dementia. However, some things do show some promise.
As mentioned above, having risk factors for cardiovascular disease can increase your risk of developing all types of dementia. These risk factors include:
Raised cholesterol levels
Drinking too much alcohol
Not doing enough physical activity
Being overweight
Having diabetes or high blood pressure
Therefore, it would seem likely that doing something to modify these risk factors may reduce your risk of developing dementia.
Keeping your brain active may also help to reduce your risk of developing dementia. So, for example, consider reading books, learning a foreign language, playing a musical instrument, taking up a new hobby, etc.
Many studies are going on to look into treatments which may help to prevent dementia. These include certain blood pressure medicines, omega-3 fatty acids, brain training exercises as well as the strategies discussed above. However, there is not yet convincing evidence available for any of these.

Scientists discover new form of matter called the time crystals

  Scientists discover new form of matter called the time crystals
Credit: Chris Monroe, University of Maryland

source : university of California – Berkeley.

scientists are really thrilling the world with new discoveries everyday and the newest discovery is that of a new state of matter called the time crystal.
Normal crystals, likes
diamond, are an
atomic lattice that repeats in space, but
physicists recently suggested making
materials that repeat in time. Last year,
reseachers sketched out the phases
surrounding a time crystal and what to
measure in order to confirm that this new
material is actually a stable phase of
matter. This stimulated two teams to build a
time crystal, the first examples of a non-
equilibrium form of matter.
To Norman Yao, these inert crystals are the
tip of the iceberg.
If crystals have an atomic structure that
repeats in space, like the carbon lattice of a
diamond, why can’t crystals also have a
structure that repeats in time? That is, a time
In a paper published online last week in the
journal Physical Review Letters, the University
of California, Berkeley assistant professor of
physics describes exactly how to make and
measure the properties of such a crystal, and
even predicts what the various phases
surrounding the time crystal should be — akin
to the liquid and gas phases of ice.
This is not mere speculation. Two groups
followed Yao’s blueprint and have already
created the first-ever time crystals. The groups
at the University of Maryland and Harvard
University reported their successes, using two
totally different setups, in papers posted
online last year, and have submitted the
results for publication. Yao is a co-author on
both papers.
Time crystals repeat in time because they are
kicked periodically, sort of like tapping Jell-O
repeatedly to get it to jiggle, Yao said. The big
breakthrough, he argues, is less that these
particular crystals repeat in time than that
they are the first of a large class of new
materials that are intrinsically out of
equilibrium, unable to settle down to the
motionless equilibrium of, for example, a
diamond or ruby.
“This is a new phase of matter, period, but it
is also really cool because it is one of the first
examples of non-equilibrium matter,” Yao
said. “For the last half-century, we have been
exploring equilibrium matter, like metals and
insulators. We are just now starting to explore
a whole new landscape of non-equilibrium
While Yao is hard put to imagine a use for a
time crystal, other proposed phases of non-
equilibrium matter theoretically hold promise
as nearly perfect memories and may be useful
in quantum computers.

The Harvard team, led by Mikhail Lukin, set up
its time crystal using densely packed nitrogen
vacancy centers in diamonds.
Journal Reference:
1. N. Y. Yao, A. C. Potter, I.-D. Potirniche,
A. Vishwanath. Discrete Time Crystals:
Rigidity, Criticality, and Realizations.
Physical Review Letters, 2017; 118 (3)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.030401

how the human brain makes meaning using lst

 how the human brain makes meaning using lsd
the human brain is vast .
researchers who’ve studied how
perceptions of meaning change when people
take the psychedelic drug known as LSD have
traced that sense of meaningfulness to
particular neurochemicals and receptors in the
brain. The findings are reported in Current
Biology on January 26.
The findings add to our fundamental
understanding of the human experience. They
also point to potentially new targets for drugs
to treat psychiatric illnesses or phobias, which
come with abnormalities in the attribution of
personal relevance to particular sensory
experiences or cues, the researchers say.
“Our results increase our understanding of
how personal relevance attribution is enabled
in the human brain,” says Katrin Preller of the Zürich
University Hospital for Psychiatry. “[We now
know] which receptors, neurotransmitters, and
brain regions are involved when we perceive
our environment as meaningful and relevant.”
Earlier studies showed that LSD alters the
attribution of meaning and personal relevance
to the environment, Preller explains. LSD also
changes the way people perceive themselves,
as the distinction between the self and the
world outside the self blurs. But it wasn’t clear
exactly what parts of the human brain and which
neurochemicals were responsible.
Preller and colleagues first confirmed the
usual effects of LSD on study participants’
state of consciousness, mood, and anxiety in
the lab. They found that those psychedelic
effects of LSD were erased when participants
took a second drug called ketanserin that
blocked the ability of LSD to act on serotonin
receptors known as 5-HT2ARs. That finding
came as something of a surprise because LSD
is also known to stimulate dopamine
receptors, Preller says.
To explore LSD’s influence on the way people
attribute meaning to things in their world, the
researchers asked participants taking a
placebo, LSD, or LSD plus ketanserin to rank
the meaning attached to a series of songs.
Some of those songs were ones that
participants told the researchers were
particularly meaningful to them. Others were
either neutral or without meaning.
The researchers found that musical pieces that
were previously meaningless to participants
took on special meaning when those
individuals were under the influence of LSD.
That effect was diminished when participants
were given the second drug to counteract
LSD’s effects on the human brain’s serotonin
receptors. Brain imaging studies also linked
those changing attributions of meaning to
particular brain areas.
“By combining functional brain imaging and
detailed behavioral assessments using a
specific experimental paradigm to investigate
personal relevance or meaning of music
pieces, we were able to elucidate the
neurobiological correlates of personal
relevance processing in the brain,” Preller
says. “We found that personal meaning
attribution and its modulation by LSD is
mediated by the 5-HT2A receptors and
cortical midline structures that are also
crucially involved in enabling the experience of
a sense of self.”
Preller says they now plan to explore whether
they observe the same effects in response to
visual or tactile stimuli. They also hope to
explore the relevance of their findings to
dysfunctional attributions of meaning in
people with psychiatric disorders.
“Excessive stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors
seems to underlay the experience of loosening
of self/ego boundaries, disrupted self-
referential processing and thus the related
impairment of making meaning and attributing
personal relevance to percepts and
experiences seen in various psychiatric
disorders,” she says. “Therefore, it is important
to consider this receptor subtype as potential
target for the treatment of psychiatric illnesses
characterized by alterations in personal
relevance attribution.”
A separate study in Cell on the structure of
LSD and its receptor, and what this teaches us
about the drug’s potency, was also published
on January 26.
This study was financially supported by grants
from the Heffter Research Institute, the Swiss
Neuromatrix Foundation, the Usona Institute,
and the Swiss National Science Foundation.

photo : new machine that neatly folds all your laundry clothes for you

 FoldiMate wants to sell you a laundry-folding
robot  that folds laundry clothes on its own
Photo credit : FoldiMate

Hahaha wow ,I love this photo. Science and technology makes everything so easier that you don’t need to fold your laundry clothes by yourself again thanks to foldimate
. This technology enables a machine to fold all your clothes neatly after laundry.
FoldiMate has talked about the FoldiMate
Family robot for a while, and the company is
showing a prototype of its machine at CES
2017, the big tech trade show in Las Vegas
this week. FoldiMate founder and CEO Gal
Rozov said the device is “saving marriages
around the world.”
FoldiMate’s machine requires you to clip your
clothes onto a slot on the machine. The robot
pulls the item over a board and steams it, and
then folds it. Once the robot is finished with
the whole rack, it spits out the folded clothes
for you to remove. The machine will cost
around $850, or so.
It takes the robot about 10 seconds to fold
one item, and it has a capacity of about 15 to
20 items. The machine weighs about 66
pounds, uses standard power, and it is
connected via Wi-Fi. The company plans to
announce more shipping details soon. venturebeat

Photos : xaomi communications produces Mi TV 4 with the tiniest display screen in the world.

  Xiaomi unveils ‘very thin’ modular Mi TV 4,
white ceramic Mi Mix smartphone, Mi Router
xaomi unveils    mi TV 4 tiniest TV set
tiniest smallest TV set in the world mi TV 4
Photo credit : Ken Yeung/VentureBeat

“Mi TV 4 is the thinnest TV yet, measuring 4.9
millimeters, practically disappearing when
viewed from at a flat angle,” claimed Hugo
Barra, Xiaomi’s vice president of international,
on stage at the Consumer Electronics Show.
The television has no frames and “barely any
bezels,” with a metal back cover and
transparent stand. It ships with Patchwall, the
Xiaomi proprietary user interface layer that’s
built on Android. The device uses artificial
intelligence to surface relevant content for
each user, gleaning insight from 44 million
movies, 1.52 million comments, and 600,000
in-depth reviews.
Barra boasted: “We put a lot of thought in
designing Patchwall. We believe it’s a
substantial improvement over any [smart] TV
This TV is the smallest in the world. Because the Mi TV 4 is a modular television,
it’s easier to customize the device to your
liking. The television is separate from the
electronics, so if you wanted better audio, you
need only purchase another sound bar, not
scrap your entire TV. Xiaomi said that only
one wire is needed to connect all the
electronics with the display. The Mi TV 4
comes with 10 integrated speakers, 2 wireless
satellite speakers, and a subwoofer. It also
supports Dolby Atmos.
Mi TV 4 comes in three sizes — 49 inches, 55
inches, and 65 inches — and goes on sale
later this year in China for “well under” $
2,000. venturebeat
Flat-panel displays are electronic viewing
technologies used to enable people to see
content (still images, moving images, text, or
other visual material) in a range of
entertainment, consumer electronics, personal
computer, and mobile devices, and many types
of medical, transportation and industrial
equipment. They are far lighter and thinner
than traditional cathode ray tube (CRT)
television sets and video displays and are
usually less than 10 centimetres (3.9 in)
thick. Flat-panel displays can be divided into
two display device categories: volatile and
static. Volatile displays require that pixels be
periodically electronically refreshed to retain
their state (e.g., Liquid-crystal displays (LCD)
). A volatile display only shows an image
when it has battery or AC mains power. Static
flat-panel displays rely on materials whose
color states are bistable (e.g., e-book reader
tablets from Sony ), and as such, flat-panel
displays retain the text or images on the
screen even when the power is off. As of 2016,
flat-panel displays have almost completely
replaced old CRT displays. In many 2010-era
applications, specifically small portable
devices such as laptops, mobile phones,
smartphones , digital cameras , camcorders ,
point-and-shoot cameras , and pocket video
cameras , any display disadvantages of
flatscreens (as compared with CRTs) are made
up for by portability advantages (thinness and
lightweightness) .
Most 2010s-era flat-panel displays use LCD
and/or LED technologies. Most LCD screens
are back-lit to make them easier to read or
view in bright environments. Flat-panel
displays are thin and lightweight and provide
better linearity and they are capable of higher
resolution than typical consumer-grade TVs
from earlier eras. The highest resolution for
consumer-grade CRT TVs was 1080i ; in
contrast, many flatscreens can display 1080p
or even 4K resolution . As of 2016, some
devices that use flatscreens, such as tablet
computers, smartphones and less, commonly,
laptops, use touchscreens , a feature that
enables users to select onscreen icons or
trigger actions (e.g., playing a digital video)
by touching the screen. Many touchscreen-
enabled devices can display a virtual QWERTY
or numeric keyboard on the screen, to enable
the user to type words or numbers.
A multifunctional monitor (MFM ) is a flat-
panel display that has additional video inputs
(more than a typical LCD monitor ) and is
designed to be used with a variety of external
video sources, such as VGA input, HDMI input
from a VHS VCR or video game console and,
in some cases, a USB input or card reader for
viewing digital photos). In many instances, an
MFM also includes a TV tuner, making it
similar to a LCD TV that offers computer
connectivity. Wikipedia
Congrats to xaomi communications for their ingenuity in producing televisions with the thinnest display screen in the world. [ mi TV 4 ] .

photo : virtual reality bike

  virtual reality bike

Photo credit

According to Wikipedia
Virtual reality ( VR) typically refers to computer
technologies that use software to generate
realistic images, sounds and other sensations
that replicate a real environment (or create an
imaginary setting), and simulate a user’s
physical presence in this environment, by
enabling the user to interact with this space
and any objects depicted therein using
specialized display screens or projectors and
other devices. VR has been defined as “…a
realistic and immersive simulation of a three-
dimensional environment, created using
interactive software and hardware , and
experienced or controlled by movement of the
body” or as an “immersive, interactive
experience generated by a computer”. [2]
A person using virtual reality equipment is
typically able to “look around” the artificial
world, move about in it and interact with
features or items that are depicted on a
screen or in goggles. Most 2016-era virtual
realities are displayed either on a computer
monitor , a projector screen , or with a virtual
reality headset (also called head-mounted
display or HMD). HMDs typically take the form
of head-mounted goggles with a screen in
front of the eyes. Programs may include audio
and sounds through speakers or headphones.
Virtual reality environment may be captured
using 360° stereoscopic spherical video and
360×360 surround sound from professional VR
video cameras.
Advanced haptic systems in the 2010s may
include tactile information, generally known as
force feedback in medical, video gaming and
military training applications. Some VR
systems used in video games can transmit
vibrations and other sensations to the user via
the game controller. Virtual reality also refers
to remote communication environments which
provide a virtual presence of users with
through telepresence and telexistence or the
use of a virtual artifact (VA), either through
the use of standard input devices such as a
keyboard and mouse, or through multimodal
devices such as a wired glove or
omnidirectional treadmills . The immersive
environment can be similar to the real world in
order to create a lifelike experience or it can
differ significantly from reality where gamers
can use fictional powers.

From reports gotten from Fitbit’s already got some of the top-selling fitness
trackers on the market, but as the space faces a
potential over-saturation, continued success lies in
partnerships. As such, the wearable maker’s been
building up its Works With Fitbit ecosystem one piece
at a time.

gamepedia : VR Bike is a virtual reality game for the
Google Play , Altergaze, Google Cardboard,
Samsung Gear VR , Fove , Freefly VR , Homido ,
iOS , LG 360 VR , Star VR , and Zeiss VR One
Official Summary
Ride and slalom in the road traffic. VR Race is
a innovative car game because you must use
your virtual reality glasses to play it. With
your VR glasses, you must simulate the same
movements on a motorcycle to be able to
point you in the game.
In this game speed, you have to avoid other
cars and reach the finish line in each level. As
you advance in levels , the more your speed
will be. 3 game modes : Easy : all cars
traveling in the same direction as you. Normal
driving on a 2×2 , cars circulating in both
directions. Difficulty : You drive your
motorbike against the direction . Road traffic
is denser.
This game was created in 3D. A particular
work was made at the lights, cars and scenery
of the city.

Photo : driverless automatic car that drives on it’s own

   driverless car that automatically drives on it's own
Photo credit techcrunch
A passenger in this driverless automatic car reports “As we settle into the back seat, it’s apparent
something is different. The vehicle has two rear-
mounted displays that mirror a third in the center
console between the driver’s seat and the front
passenger. All three of these screens (iPads, if you’re
curious) show vehicle passengers a simplified
information display representing the car, its basic
surroundings, current speed – and a steering wheel
icon that lets you know, somewhat ironically, when
there’s no need for a human to be using said wheel.
The drive began with the human safety driver taking us
out onto Las Vegas’ Paradise Road, but once we’d
merged into traffic he turned on the autonomous
system and took his hands off the wheel. The course
was a short, roughly 1 mile loop, and we could track
our progress on the display. Unlike in a lot of demo
autonomous cars, this display, with its polished
graphical representation of the car and its progress,
seemed almost production-ready for a real consumer.”
And the autonomous system also performed in a way
that almost felt ready for regular drivers and real roads
– almost. The system remained engaged throughout
the first half of the drive, handling turns and stops
with relative ease. But the car began rolling backwards
ever so slowly while we were stopped on an incline in
traffic, leading to the only slightly tense moment of the
drive, as we did get close to the car behind. The safety
driver had to take over manual control to get us past
the light, but once he resumed the autonomous driving
mode, it proceeded uneventfully for the remainder of
the trip.
Hyundai’s approach to autonomy focuses on
leveraging things like detailed maps, to supplement a
lighter sensor load out and reduce costs both for
producer and consumer . It likely is playing with a very
detailed and well-trod picture of the route it’s running
for demos at CES this year, the one we experienced,
but it was still impressive barring the one time the
driver needed to take over.
  automatic driverless car
An autonomous car (driverless car , self-driving car,
robotic car is a vehicle that is capable of
sensing its environment and navigating without human
Autonomous cars can detect surroundings using a
variety of techniques such as radar, lidar, GPS,
odometry , and computer vision . Advanced control
systems interpret sensory information to identify
appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and
relevant signage .Autonomous cars have control
systems that are capable of analyzing sensory data to
distinguish between different cars on the road, which is
very useful in planning a path to the desired
Some demonstrative systems, precursory to
autonomous cars, date back to the 1920s and 30s.
The first self-sufficient (and therefore, truly
autonomous) cars appeared in the 1980s, with
Carnegie Mellon University ‘s Navlab and ALV projects
in 1984 and Mercedes-Benz and Bundeswehr
University Munich ‘s Eureka Prometheus Project in
1987. Since then, numerous major companies and
research organizations have developed working
prototype autonomous vehicles.
Among the potential benefits of automated cars is a
significant reduction of traffic accidents , and the
resulting deaths and injuries, and related costs,
including lower insurance costs; major increases in
roadway capacity, with the potential to more than
quadruple capacity, resulting in significantly less traffic
congestion; enhance mobility for the elderly , people
with disabilities , and low-income citizens; relieve
travelers from driving and navigation chores, freeing
commuting hours with more time for leisure or work;
less fuel consumption, producing less air pollution and
a lower carbon footprint from road travel; significantly
reduced parking space needs in cities, freeing space
for other public and private uses; and facilitating or
improving existing and new business models of
mobility as a service, including carsharing, e-hailing ,
ride hailing services , real-time ridesharing , and other
services of the sharing economy , all contributing to
reduce car ownership.
Among the main obstacles and disadvantages due to
a widespread adoption of autonomous vehicles, in
addition to the technological challenges, are disputes
concerning liability; the time period needed to turn an
existing stock of vehicles from non-autonomous to
autonomous; resistance by individuals to forfeit control
of their cars; customer concern about the safety of
driverless cars; implementation of legal framework and
establishment of government regulations for self-
driving cars; risk of loss of privacy and security
concerns, such as hackers or terrorism; concerns about
the resulting loss of driving-related jobs in the road
transport industry; and risk of increased
suburbanization as driving becomes faster and less
onerous without proper public policies in place to
avoid more urban sprawl. Wikipedia

Photo : new elliptical galaxy discovered by scientists

  strange  Photo : new elliptical galaxy discovered by scientists
photo credit : daily mail

The discovery of this galaxy was made during a research, carried out by scientists at the
University of Minnesota Duluth and the North
Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences,
provides the first description of a galaxy of its
An extremely rare galaxy called PGC
1000714 has been spotted for the first time
The new galaxy has a well-defined elliptical-
like core surrounded by two rings
Its outer ring was likely formed when it
engulfed a smaller, dwarf galaxy
Exactly how the inner ring was made
requires further study, researchers said
Around 359 million light-years away from
Earth, a strange galaxy unlike any seen before
has been spotted.
The galaxy, which is made up of a core
surrounded by two rings and resembles an
eye, has been named Burcin’s galaxy.
This unusual family of stars could offer new
insight into how all galaxies form,
astronomers have said.

Advantages of having a large body size

   Advantages of having a large body size

There are a few advantages attached to large body size. They include: People with large body size are:

• Stronger.

• Better predators – a lion for an example can kill a broad type of prey than a house cat.

• Larger bodied organisms have an added benefit in colder climates according to Bergman’s rule which states that:

The larger the animal the better it is at retaining heat. This is the reason why during the glacial times a lot of lineages of animals developed giant types. Human being follows this rule in a great way.

People who occupy the poles have the tendency of becoming larger on the average than those living near the equator, but there are many exceptions.

Larger people are commonly faster runners. The fact that their stride length is longer and that they can apply more force with each stride due to larger muscles gives them this benefit.

variations and distribution in body part sizes around the world

  Variation and distribution in body parts around the world
Distribution of body size

  1. Europeans possess the largest average body size. It is in Europe where Bergman’s rule is majorly vividly applied. The largest Europeans are from the far north, and the people farther south of Europe are smaller.
  2. Africans have both the world’s tallest and the world’s smallest people. The Nuer, Masai, Watusi, and related peoples of East Central Africa are the world’s tallest and among the world’s largest. The Pygmies of congo-West Central Africa and the Khoisan of Southern Africa are among the world’s smallest.

  3. Asians and Native Americans normally fall in the middle ranges. Just a few populations could be taken as large e.g- the Samoans.

Body weight

The majority of the variation in body weight of humans can be classified into linear build and lateral build.

The extreme linear build is found in the earlier mentioned tall peoples of East Central Africa. These people are very tall and slender. The chests, shoulders, and hips are extremely narrow – the narrowest in the world for their height. Their limbs are very long, particularly the legs.

On the other hand, the highly lateral build is found in a few Asian and

Native Americans cultures-the Eskimos, Japanese, Samoans, Apache, and many South American Indians exhibit lateral build. A few Caucasoid groups as well exhibit lateral build, particularly the peoples of northern Europe.

Laterally built people have the tendency to develop long and broad trunks, with wider chests, shoulders and hips. The widest hips of all can be seen among Europeans. Their limb bones tend to be short and the legs make less of a contribution to overall height.


A lot of things about hair are variable.

  1. Hair Color:

Generally, dark hair goes with dark skin and light hair goes with light skin.

You can possess dark hair with light skin, but it is rare to possess light hair with dark skin. People can as well different color of hair on different parts of their body.

Blond hair has little melanin and black hair and in reality very dark

Brown has a lot of melanin. Skin melanins are always brown while hair melanin can be either brown or red. Generally, brown melanin is stronger in color than red melanin and can cover it.

The distribution of hair color is almost completely a European feature, with the majority of the rest of the world’s people possessing dark brown hair.

The farther north in Europe the more likely the hair is to be blond. The farther west in Europe you go; the greater the tendency of the hair to be red.

  1. Hair curvature

The degree of curvature of the hair can be divided into 3 categories: straight, wavy, and curly. The shape of the hair follicle determines the curvature of the hair. Round follicles give rise to straight hair, oval follicles give rise to wavy hair, and disk-shaped follicles give rise to curly hair.

Straight hair is seen all over the majority of world population, including the Americas, Asia, and parts of Europe. Europe has the greatest hair variation in hair curvature. It ranges from straight to very wavy. The Middle East and North Africa have a lot of wavy and a few curly heads.

Subsaharan Africans range from curly to very curly. The curliest hair is found in the Khoisans whose hair is often so tightly curled that it is called peppercorn hair because it looks like pepper corns placed on their heads.

  1. Hair length:

A lot of people are amazed that there is as well genetic variation in hair length. Just like in other mammals, every one of us has a particular hair length outside which the hair plainly won’t grow. Hair length is longest in people who have round follicles, for the fact that round follicles appear to hold the hair better.


Eye color and type show another remarkable range of variation. The colored part of the eye-the iris surrounds the pupil of the eye and possesses muscles which dilate and contract the pupil. The iris has a lot of layers; two among the layers contain melanin. All eye melanin is brown.

The variation in eye color is as a result of the pigmentation of the exterior layer of the iris. The iris may or may not be pigmented.

View also



Ears are very different in size, size of the ear lobe, protrusion, and whether the ear lobe is free or attached.

The African type of ear is a relatively small, non-protruding ear with small free lobes. The American and Indian type is the other extreme in average size and protrusion, and Asians typically have the maximum frequency of attached ear lobes. Europeans are the most variable and have ears that span the whole range of human variation.


Possessing different types of lips is exceptionally a human characteristic. Every human being has lips, which differ basically in the extent to which they are rolled up to expose the pink membranous portion.

This observable fact is known as lip eversion. Everted lips appear to have a slight capacity to cool the body due to the fact that capillaries run very close to the surface of the lips, and the slight moistness of the lips assists to cool the body through evaporation.

The majority of everted lips are found on the faces of some Africans and the least everted lips on the faces of some Europeans.

Advantages of a small body size

   advantages small short body sizes

  1. Small people need less food and can better survive when food is limited. Famines kill people in order of size starting from largest to the smallest.

  2. Smaller people are usually faster and more agile. This is as a result of the principle of inertia from physics. A larger body needs more force to be in motion and more force to change direction than a smaller body.

Ecological succesion

   ecological succesion .plant animal ecology
Communities do not remain the same but alter over a period of time. This is majorly due to a process known as ecological succession. We see this process all around us as abandoned farmland alters to weed fields, brush land and subsequently to a forest.

One community succeeds another in various stages as conditions change that is favorable to another suite of wildlife species.

The first stage in succession is known as the pioneer stage, which is made up of bare habitat conditions, like an exposed rock. This stage stays until conditions alter to the extent that soil gathers up and plants are capable of thriving there.

These changes go on and on till formation of a climax community, which is in equilibrium with soil and climatic conditions. Species of a climax community do not generate conditions unfavorable to themselves or additionally favorable to other species.

7 organs and glands of the Human hormonal system

   organs parts function human hormonal system
Pituitary gland

The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland situated in the center of the skull, inferior to the hypothalamus of the brain and posterior to the viaduct of the nose. It is a crucial link between the nervous and endocrine systems and discharges a lot of hormones which have an effect on growth, sexual development, metabolism and human reproduction.

Parathyroid gland

parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck of humans that regulates calcium, located behind the thyroid gland in the neck. The hormone regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism

Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland or merely, the thyroid in vertebrate anatomy is one of the largest endocrine glands and is made up of two connected lobes. The thyroid gland is located in the neck, below the thyroid cartilage (which forms the laryngeal prominence or “Adam’s apple”).

Thymus gland

Thymus gland a lymphoid organ situated in the neck of vertebrates that is much more closely associated with the immune system than with the endocrine system

Adrenal gland

Adrenal gland is one of a pair of ductless glands, located above the kidneys, consisting of a cortex, which produces steroidal hormones, and a medulla, which produces epinephrine and norepinephrine.


The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. In humans it is situated in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. It is an endocrine gland producing a lot of essential hormones which includes insulin, glucagon, somastostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide which moves round in the blood


Kidney is One of a pair of organs with a bean-shaped in the back part of the abdominal cavity that form and excrete urine, regulate fluid and electrolyte balance, and act as endocrine glands.


Testis is an organ that produces spermatozoa – male reproductive cells.



12 parts of the Human skin and their functions

parts function human skin


These are small, almost imperceptible pores that permit the skin to remain tight, firm, and youthful. When you desire to shrink your pores both in size and number, serums feel fresh and hydrating. The use of hydroxy acid exfoliators such as Exfol Serum or LacSal Serum helps to ensure that your pores are kept clear.

Hair shaft

The hair shaft is the part of the hair that sticks out of the skin. The hair shaft is connected to the follicle. There are a lot of components that make up hair structure to make it the fastest growing tissue in the body. Hair can be found on many parts of the body including head.

Skin surface

The whole surface of the skin is potholed by the orifices of sweat glands and hair follicle pores also known as and is furrowed by intersecting lines that delineate characteristic patterns. All individuals have roughly similar markings on any one part of the body, but the details are unique. The lines are slanting in the general direction of elastic tension.

Sweat pore

This is a simple tubular gland of the skin that secretes sweat, in humans it is broadly in nearly all parts of the skin, and is mainly made up of an epithelial tube extending spirally from a minute pore on the surface of the skin into the dermis or subcutaneous tissues where it ends in a convoluted tuft known as alsosudoriferous gland, sudoriparous gland

Nerve ending

The structure in which the distal end of the axon of a nerve fiber ends is also known as nerve end. The end of a nerve, at the distal end of an axon; nerve endings are the millions of points on the surface of your body and inside it which send messages to your brain when you feel sensations such as heat, cold, and pain.

Sebaceous gland

The Sebaceous gland is the small oil-producing gland located in the skin of mammals. Sebaceous glands are normally attached to hair follicles and release a fatty substance known as sebum, into the follicular duct and from there to the surface of the skin. The glands are distributed all over the body with the exception of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.

Connective tissue

Connective tissue is group of tissues in the body that maintains the form of the body and its organs and provides cohesion and internal support. The connective tissues include a lot of types of fibrous tissue that differ only in their density and cellularity in addition to more specialized and recognizable variants—bones, ligaments, tendons, cartilage, and adipose tissue.

Adipose tissue

Adipose tissue, or fat, is an anatomical word for loose connective tissue made up of adipocytes.Its major role is to store energy in the form of fat, although it as well cushions and insulates the body. Obesity in animals, including humans, is not dependent on the amount of body weight, but on the amount of body fat – particularly adipose tissue.


Arteriole is a small branch of an artery that leads to a capillary. The oxygenated hemoglobin known as the (oxyhemoglobin) makes the blood in arterioles (and arteries) look bright red. The greatest change in blood pressure and velocity of blood flow takes place at the transition of arterioles to capillaries.


As the capillaries converge, small venules are created whose role is to collect blood from the capillary beds (i.e., the networks of capillaries). The venules are made up of an endothelial tube supported by a small amount of collagenous tissue and, in the larger venules, by a few smooth muscle fibres as well.

Sweat gland

Sweat glands are coiled tubes of epidermal origin, though they are located in the dermis. Their secretory cells surround a central space, or lumen, into which the secretion is extruded. There are two different types: eccrine glands open by a duct directly onto the skin surface; apocrine glands normally develop in association with hair follicles and open into them.


Capillaries are the smallest of the blood vessels and serve as the link between the arterial and venal systems of the cardiac system. The action of the diaphragm and muscles in the arms and legs exerts a massaging effect that assists to move blood back to the heart to exchange oxygen and other nutrients for waste products.




Examples of continuous and discontinuous variations

      Examples of continuous and discontinuous variations
There are two types of variation; continuous and discontinuous Variation.

Continuous variation is variation that has no boundary on the value that can take place within a population. A line graph is used to showcase continuous variation.

Some examples of continuous variation are variations in:

• height

• weight

• heart rate

• finger length

• leaf length

Discontinuous variation is variation that has distinct groups for organisms to belong to. A bar graph is normally used to showcase a discontinuous variation.

Some examples of discontinuous variation are:

• tongue rolling

• finger prints

• eye colour

• blood groups

A discontinuous variation with a lot of classes, none of which is extremely small, is referred to as a polymorphic variation.
The separation of the majority of higher organisms into males and females and the occurrence of different forms of a butterfly of the same species, each coloured to blend with varying vegetation, are examples of polymorphic variation.

Ecological succesion

        Ecological succesion  plant animal ecology
Communities do not remain the same but alter over a period of time. This is majorly due to a process known as ecological succession. We see this process all around us as abandoned farmland alters to weed fields, brush land and subsequently to a forest.

One community succeeds another in various stages as conditions change that is favorable to another suite of wildlife species.

The first stage in succession is known as the pioneer stage, which is made up of bare habitat conditions, like an exposed rock. This stage stays until conditions alter to the extent that soil gathers up and plants are capable of thriving there.

These changes go on and on till formation of a climax community, which is in equilibrium with soil and climatic conditions. Species of a climax community do not generate conditions unfavorable to themselves or additionally favorable to other species.

Physiological variations

      Physiological variations
Genetics deals with how a few characteristics are transferred from generation to generation, i.e. heredity, or inheritance. Just like the majority of living organisms, human beings exhibit variation.

If you consider roughly any characteristic, you will discover differences between different people or other animals or plants in a population. There are two forms of variation:continuous and discontinuous variation.

Features that show continuous variation differ in a general way, with a wide range, and a lot of intermediate values between the extremes.

As a matter of fact, if you consider a large enough model from a population, perhaps plotting frequency as a histogram or as a frequency polygon, you would discover that the majority of the values are close to the average (mean), and farthest range of values are essentially to a certain extent rare.

Height is an example of a continuously variation in so far as you take into consideration a constant sample, for instance a huge number of people of a specific age and sex.

It is normally difficult to give a straightforward explanation of the genetic basis for these continuously variation due to the fact that they result from a combination of genetic factors in addition to environmental influences.

Characteristics that exhibit discontinuous variation fall into a few very different classes. The capability to roll the tongue, and blood groups, are examples of discontinuous variation.

These characteristics can be explained much more simply by straightforward rules of genetics and are less likely to be affected by other factors.

Human physical appearance is referred to as the outward phenotype or look of human beings. There are countless variations in human phenotypes, though society minimizes the variation to different categories.

Physical appearances of humans, especially those characters which are known as crucial for physical beauty, are believed by anthropologists to considerably affect the development of personality and social relations. Humans are extremely sensitive to their physical appearance.

A few differences in human appearance are genetic, others are due to age, lifestyle or disease, and many are the result of personal beautification.

Physiological differences

Humans are dispersed across the globe with exception of Antarctica, and form an extremely erratic species. In adults, average weight differs from around 40 kilos for the smallest and major lightly built tropical people to around 80 kilos for the heavier northern peoples.

Size as well differs between the sexes, the sexual dimorphism in humans is more pronounced that that of chimpanzees, but less the sort of dimorphism found in gorillas.

The colouration of skin, hair and eyes as well differs greatly, with darker pigmentation authority in tropical climates and lighter in Polar Regions.

Factors Affecting Physical Appearance

A lot of factors are considered pertinent in relation to the physical appearance of humans.

• Genetic, ethnic affiliation, geographical ancestry

• Height, body weight, skin tone, body hair, sexual organs, moles, birthmarks, freckles, hair color, hair texture, eye color, eye shape, nose shape example nasal bridge, ears shape- example earlobes and body shape.

• Body deformations, mutilations and other variations like amputations, scars, burns and wounds

Causes of variation

A few of the characteristics possessed by an individual in a population can be said to be inherited. This means that they obtained from the past generation. These characteristics are transferred from generation to generation in a rather conventional way, due to sexual reproduction.

Sexual reproduction as well introduces an atom of unpredictability, so that variation is brought about in a population.

These two approximately contradictory factors: reliable inheritance of characteristics from parents, and variation that exist within a population – are indispensable to the perception of the process of evolution.

Three examples of physiological variations that exist between human being are:

a)Ability to roll tongue

There are two classes of tongue-rolling ability:

Rollers and non-rollers.

b) Ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)

C) Blood groups ABO classifications

There are 4 classes of blood group: A, B, O and AB.

The ABO blood group system

The antigens for the ABO system are a group of glycoproteins. Frankly attached to the red cell membrane is a protein.

At a definite segment of the protein is bonded a type of 5-carbon sugar, fucose. These fucose sugar molecules are known to as the H antigen, and interact with an antiserum known as anti-H.

The production of antigen H is controlled by a detached locus from that of the ABO blood group, but antigen H is closely linked with the ABO system.

The majority of people who possess an allele for blood type O have antigen H, and ought to more correctly be classified as blood type H. Therefore, the most correct way to explain this blood group system is the ABH system.

There are some individuals, who do not have the H antigen and just possess a naked protein chain hanging aloof their red cells. This is as well known as the Bombay blood type.

The frequency of the Bombay allele is anywhere around .0066, so homozygotes are very rare. This allele is normally represented as the normal H allele is dominant to it.

The allele for blood group A makes it possible for another sugar to be attached to the antigen H, fucose, and sugar molecule. This attached sugar is N-acetylgalactosamine (NAG), and is the A antigen.

The allele for blood group B makes a molecule of simple galactose sugar to be attached to the fucose molecule. This is the B antigen. The O allele causes the H antigen to remain unmodified.

People who are AA homozygotes or AO heterozygotes have mainly the A antigen, with typically a little free H antigen. In fact there are 4 dissimilar A alleles, the variations that exists between them are poorly understood, but which appear to vary primarily in the amount of H antigen that gets converted to A antigen.

So, they make differences in the strengths of the antigen-antiserum reactions to occur.

Nevertheless, specific antisera can be made to at least few of the 4 different blood groups subtypes, so there ought to be a number of differences in the actual antigen as well.

Most non-African populations have only A1 and A2 alleles, but Africans can also have Aint and Abantu alleles.

People who are BB or BO have more often than not the B antigen, with a little free H antigen. There is no chief variability in the B blood type.

People who are AB heterozygotes possess both the A and B antigens. Every one of the cell will possess more or less half of its H antigens customized into A antigens and about half customized into B antigens.

This showcases the phenomenon of codominance. Neither A nor B is dominant to the other, so the products of both alleles can exist in a heterozygote. Both A and B are dominant to O.

An individual does not usually make antibodies to any antigen which he or she personally has. The galactose and fucose sugars are widespread enough in nature, especially in disease carrying organisms, so people produce antibodies to these sugars if they are not part of their personal antigen system.

Consequently, everybody who is not blood group A will make anti-A antibodies. Everyone who is not blood group B will make anti-B antibodies.

Approximately nobody produces anti-H antibodies, but you can extract an anti-H antiserum from the seeds of the widespread gorse plant.

The major significance of the ABH blood group system is in blood matching for transfusions. If the donor and recipient are not matched in terms of their ABH blood types then the antibodies in the recipient’s plasma may result to an agglutination reaction of the red cells from the donor.

This is a serious situation for the patient. Noteworthy though is that people with blood type AB possess no antibodies in their plasma, so they can in fact receive blood from anybody. This is why they are known as universal recipients.

Normally, the small amount of antibodies introduced with the plasma from the donor’s blood doesn’t lead to a very severe reaction in the recipient to cause any problems, even though it is still better to match blood types exactly.

Noteworthy as well is the fact that blood type O individuals have no A or B antigen. This means that nobody’s antibodies can agglutinate their cells. This is why type O people are frequently called universal donors, although you may infrequently have problems with the antibodies in the plasma of type O blood.

A lot of other serum proteins, red cell proteins, blood groups, and antigen systems exist. What we have described here is a few of the main well known ones.

A Gene Mutation is an extremely rare occurrence really. A mutation in a single inheritable characteristic (gene) is normally less likely than one in a million, but immediately it has happened, it might be passed on to the next generation, along the same lines as other inherited characteristics.

Nevertheless, not every individual carrying mutation survives; the majority of them have been found to be harmful, so that the organisms carrying them are at a disadvantage. In the wild, that type of organism is not likely to survive.

However, a few valuable mutations confer an advantage, and others are neutral. They are of no advantage or disadvantage – in the slightest till there is a few reason for selection of adapted types to take place.

This may be a different reason for variation within a population. In fact, some variable forms resulting from mutation that are beneficial can spread through a population by natural selection, and this might have the eventual effect of altering a population to a great extent that it varies from its original form – leading to the evolution of a fresh species.

Chromosome mutations may as well lead to an alteration in the number of chromosomes included into the sex cells. A child produced as a consequence may possess, for an example, an extra chromosome, or an extra part of a chromosome affixed to the normal set.

Down’s syndrome results in a child who possesses 47 chromosomes instead of the normal 46 per cell.

Genetics: the science of heredity

     Genetics: the science of heredity
Biology Of Heredity (Genetics)-Transmission And Expression Of Characteristics In Organisms

A) Hereditary Variations: Characters that can be transferred from parents to offsprings-from generation to generation like skin colour, eye and hair, blood group, sickle cell, shape of face and nose

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the science of heredity. Heredity is the transfer of characteristics from one generation to the next. It is the reason why offspring resemble their parents. For instance, we know that a tall mother and a tall father are liable to have children that are tall.

It as well explains why cats constantly give birth to kittens and never puppies. Geneticists (scientists who study genetics) are interested in finding out two things regarding this observation.

First, what is there in the cells of a person’s body that signals the body to become tall instead of short? Second, how are the signals for “tallness” transferred from parent to offspring, from one generation to the next?

The process of heredity takes place in the midst of every living thing including animals, plants, bacteria, protists and fungi. The study of heredity is known as genetics and scientists that learn heredity are called geneticists.

Through heredity, living things take over traits from their parents. Traits are physical characteristics. You bear a resemblance to your parents due to the fact that you inherited your hair and skin color, nose shape, height, and other traits from them.

Cells are the fundamental unit of structure and function of every living thing. Small biochemical structures inside every cell known as genes transmit traits from one generation to the other.

Genes are made of a chemical known as DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Genes are strung jointly to structure long chains of DNA in structures referred to as chromosomes.

Genes are similar to blueprints for building a house, apart from the fact that they bear the plans for building cells, tissues, organs, and bodies. They have the instructions for manufacturing the thousands of chemical building blocks in the body.

These building blocks are known as proteins. Proteins are made of smaller units known as amino acids. Differences in genes give rise to the building of diverse amino acids and proteins.

These differences give rise to individuals that possess various traits like hair color or blood types.

A gene offers only the prospective for the development of a trait. The way this potential is achieved depends partially on the interaction of the gene with other genes. But it as well depends partly on the environment.

For instance, a person may have a genetic tendency toward being overweight. But the person’s real weight will depend on such environmental factors like the kinds of food the person eats and the amount of exercise that person does.

The history of Genetics

Humans have known about hereditary characteristics for thousands of years. That knowledge has been used for the improvement of domestic plants and animals. Until the late nineteenth century, however, that knowledge had been obtained through trial-and-error experiments.

The contemporary science of genetics started with the pioneering work of the Austrian monk and botanist Gregor Mendel (1822–1884).

Words you may come across and their meaning

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): Molecules that make up chromosomes and on which genes are situated.

Dominant gene: The state or genetic trait that will constantly convey itself when present as part of a pair of genes in a chromosome.

Gene: A section of a DNA molecule that carries instructions for the formation, functioning, and transmission of specific traits from one generation to another.

Heredity: The transfer of characteristics from parents to offspring.

Nucleotide: A group of atoms that exists in a DNA molecule.

Proteins: Large molecules that is crucial to the structure and functioning of all living cells.

Recessive gene: The state or genetic trait that can put across itself only when two genes, one from both parents, are available and act as a kind of code for creating the trait, but will not articulate itself when paired with a dominant gene.

Triad: This is as well referred to as codon; group of three nucleotides that carry a particular message for a cell.

Through heredity, variations demonstrated by individuals can build up and cause a number of species to evolve. The study of heredity in biology is known as genetics, which includes the field of epigenetic.

In humans, eye color is an example of an inherited characteristic: characteristics transferred from parents to offspring. An individual might inherit the “brown-eye trait” from one of the parents. Inherited traits are restricted by genes and the complete set of genes within an organism’s genome is known as its genotype.

The entire set of observable traits of the structure and behavior of an organism is called its phenotype. These traits arise from the interaction of its genotype with the environment. As a result, a lot of aspects of an organism’s phenotype are not inherited.

For instance, suntanned skin comes from the interaction between a person’s phenotype and sunlight; thereby, suntans are not transferred to people’s children.

Nevertheless, a few people auburn more easily than others, as a result of differences in their genotype: a conspicuous example is people with the inherited trait of albinism, who do not auburn at all and are very sensitive to sunburn.

Heritable traits are transferred from one generation to the other through DNA, a molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a longpolymer that is made up of four types of bases, which are exchangeable.

The sequence of bases along a specific DNA molecule specifies the genetic information: this is equivalent to a sequence of letters spelling out a passage of text.

Prior to the cell division through mitosis, the DNA is copied, so that every one of the resultant two cells will inherit the DNA progression.

A segment of a DNA molecule that specifies a particular functional unit is known as a gene; different genes have different progressions of bases.

Within cells, the long strands of DNA form condensed structures known as chromosomes.

Organisms inherit genetic material from their parents in the form of homologous chromosomes, containing a unique amalgamation of DNA progressions that code for genes.

The definite location of a DNA sequence within a chromosome is referred to as a locus. If the DNA sequence at a specific locus varies between individuals, the diverse forms of this sequence are known as alleles.

DNA sequences can alter through mutations, giving rise to fresh alleles. If a mutation takes place within a gene, the fresh allele may have effect on the trait that the gene controls, changing the phenotype of the organism.

Although this simple correspondence between an allele and a trait works in a few cases, the majorities of traits are more compounds and are restricted by multiple interacting genes within and among organisms.

Developmental biologists recommend that composite interactions in genetic networks and communication among cells can result to heritable variations that may underlay a number of of the mechanics in developmental plasticity and canalization.

B) Mendel Works In Genetics: Mendelian Traits, Mendelian Law And Mendelian Experiment

Mendelian laws of inheritance are statements about the manner specific characteristics are transmitted from one generation to another in an organism. The laws were derived by the Austrian monk Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) as a result of experiments he carried out in the period from about 1857 to 1865.

For his experiments, Mendel made use of ordinary pea plants.

Among the traits that Mendel examined were the color of a plant’s flowers, their position on the plant, the shape and color of pea pods, the shape and color of seeds, and the length of plant stems.

Mendel’s experiment was to transfer pollen (which is composed of male sex cells) from the stamen (the male reproductive organ) of one pea plant to the pistil (female reproductive organ) of a second pea plant.

As a plain example of this sort of experiment, presume that one takes pollen from a pea plant with red flowers and makes use of it to fertilize a pea plant with white flowers.

What Mendel intended to find out is what color the flowers would be in the offspring of these two plants. In a second series of experiments, Mendel examined the changes that took place in the second generation.

That is, assuming two offspring of the red/white mating (“cross”) are themselves mated. What color will the flowers be in this second generation of plants?

As a result of his experiments, Mendel was able to come out with three generalizations about the way characteristics or traits are transmitted from one generation to the next in pea plants.

Words you ought to Know

Allele: One of two or more forms a gene may exist in.

Dominant: An allele whose expression overshadows the effect of a second form of the same gene.

Gamete: A reproductive cell.

Heterozygous: A state in which two alleles for a given gene differ from each other.

Homozygous: A state in which two alleles for a given gene are the same.

Recessive: An allele whose effects are covered in offspring by the dominant allele in the pair.

Mendel’s first law: The Law of Segregation

Mendel’s law of segregation explains what occurs at the alleles that constitute a gene during formation of gametes. For instance, suppose that a pea plant is composed of a gene for flower color in which the two alleles code for red.

One way to symbolize that condition is to write RR, which indicates that both alleles (R and R) code for the color red. An additional gene might possess a diverse combination of alleles, as in Rr.

In this situation, the symbol R stands for red color and the r for “not red” or, in this situation, white. Mendel’s law of segregation says that the alleles that constitute “a gene” break up from each other, or segregate, during the formation of gametes.

That law can be represented by simple equations, like:

RR → R + R or Rr → R + r

Mendel’s second Law: Law of independent assortment

Mendel’s second law-the law of independent assortment refers to the fact that any plant contains a lot of different kinds of genes. One gene determines the colour of the flower, a second gene determines length of stem, a third gene determines shape of pea pods, and so on.

Mendel observed that the manner in which alleles from dissimilar genes divide and then recombine is unconnected to other genes. That is, assuming that a plant contains genes for color (RR) and for shape of pod (TT).

Then Mendel’s second law says that the two genes will segregate independently, as shown below:

RR → R + R and TT → T + T

Mendel’s third law: Dominance

Mendel’s third law takes care of issue of dominance. Assuming that a gene is composed of an allele for red color (R) and an allele for white color (r).

What colour will the flower of the final plant take? Mendel found out that in every pair of alleles, one is more likely to be expressed than the other.

In other words, one allele is dominant and the other allele is recessive.

In the example of an Rr gene, the flowers produced will be red for the fact that the allele R is dominant over the allele r.

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Mendelian laws of inheritance

 Mendelian laws of inheritance
Mendel’s first law: The Law of Segregation

Mendel’s law of segregation explains what occurs at the alleles that constitute a gene during formation of gametes. For instance, suppose that a pea plant is composed of a gene for flower color in which the two alleles code for red.

View also Jean lamarck’s theory of evolution
One way to symbolize that condition is to write RR, which indicates that both alleles (R and R) code for the color red. An additional gene might possess a diverse combination of alleles, as in Rr.

In this situation, the symbol R stands for red color and the r for “not red” or, in this situation, white. Mendel’s law of segregation says that the alleles that constitute “a gene” break up from each other, or segregate, during the formation of gametes.

That law can be represented by simple equations, like:

RR → R + R or Rr → R + r

Mendel’s second Law: Law of independent assortment

Mendel’s second law-the law of independent assortment refers to the fact that any plant contains a lot of different kinds of genes. One gene determines the colour of the flower, a second gene determines length of stem, a third gene determines shape of pea pods, and so on.

Mendel observed that the manner in which alleles from dissimilar genes divide and then recombine is unconnected to other genes. That is, assuming that a plant contains genes for color (RR) and for shape of pod (TT).

Then Mendel’s second law says that the two genes will segregate independently, as shown below:

RR → R + R and TT → T + T

Mendel’s third law: Dominance

Mendel’s third law takes care of issue of dominance. Assuming that a gene is composed of an allele for red color (R) and an allele for white color (r).

What colour will the flower of the final plant take? Mendel found out that in every pair of alleles, one is more likely to be expressed than the other.

In other words, one allele is dominant and the other allele is recessive.

In the example of an Rr gene, the flowers produced will be red for the fact that the allele R is dominant over the allele r.


This can be defined as the shrinking of protoplasm away from the cell wall of a plant or bacterium as a result of water loss from osmosis and in so doing leading to gaps between the cell wall and cell membrane.

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Types of solutions

When a plant cell is immersed into a highly concentrated solution, water diffuses out of the cell, and turgor pressure of the cell is lost. This makes the cell to become flaccid. Additional loss of water will lead to plasmolysis, and finally to cytorrhysis which means the total collapse of cell wall.

Plasmolysis only occurs in severe situations and seldom happens in nature. It is induced in the laboratory by immersing cells in strong saline or sugar solutions to give rise to exosmosis, frequently with the use of Elodea plants or onion epidermal cells.

Transport mechanisms in the cell

 Transport mechanisms in the cell
Substances can move into and out of a cell through its semi-permeable cell membrane. There are three different processes through which materials can move in and out of a cell. They are:

• Through the process of diffusion,

• Through the process of osmosis and

• Through the process of active transport.

Diffusion is the major process through which small molecules move in and out across the cell membrane region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

The concentration of a substance is the amount of that particular substance in a given volume of liquid. Diffusion results as a result of movement and collision of molecules. The collisions of the molecules are what caused the molecules to thrust away from one another and spread out.

Molecules would normally diffuse through the cell membrane into a cell when the contents of the cell are of a lower concentration than the surrounding solution. The diffusion of water molecules through a semi permeable membrane is known as osmosis.

Due to the fact that cell function effectively without sufficient water, the majority of cellular processes depend on osmosis.

In osmosis, the molecules of water travel through the process of diffusion from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

The movement of dissolved substances through a cell membrane without the use of cellular energy is referred to as passive transport. Diffusion and osmosis are two types of passive transport.

When there is a need for the cell to assimilate materials that are in higher concentration inside the cell than outside the cell, the movement of the materials requires energy.

On the contrary, active transport is the movement of materials through a cell membrane with the use of cellular energy. The major variation between passive transport and active transport is that active transport necessitates the use of cell’s own energy while passive transport does not.

Cells have many ways of transporting materials through active transport. In one method, especially in the transportation of protein molecules, the cell membrane “lift up” molecules outside the cell and transport them inside the cell.

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Another method of active transport is through engulfing. In this case, the cell membrane envelops or engulfs a particle and forms a vacuole inside the cell.

The majority of the cells are highly small. This is because the all particles have to move in and out of the cell through the cell membrane. On entering inside the cell, it is transported to its target through a stream of moving cytoplasm.

In an extremely large cell, streams of cytoplasm ought to travel farther to transport materials from the cell membrane to every part of the cell

Levels of organization of life

.   Levels of organization of life

  Levels of organization of life
1. Cell-Single celled organisms: In these organisms, a single cell usually carries out all the body processes. Examples of organisms that exist as single cell are Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium.
2. Tissue: Some organisms exist as a tissue which performs all the life functions example is the Hydra. Details about hydra are explained further down in the tutorial.

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3. Organ: Some organisms exist as an organ like the organ of storage in the onion bulb,. Another example of plant organ can be found in rhizome. Heart is an animal organ which is part of a system in the body of multicellular organisms.
4. System: Mammalian system and system in flowing plants, reproductive system, excretory system etc.
5. Complexity of organization in higher organisms, the advantages and disadvantages
In unicellular or single-celled organisms, the cell carries out the whole of the life functions on its own while in multicellular or many celled organisms, there are various levels of organization that exist among them.
Individual cell in addition to performing a particular function as well work jointly with other cells for the wellbeing of the entire organism. Thus there is division of labour among all the cells that the organism is composed of and each of the cells is dependent on the other to function effectively.

Organization in multicellular organisms

      Organization in multicellular organisms

  1. The Cells: The cell is the basic unit of life. It is the fundamental unit of structure and function of life. It may perform a specific function in the body of a living organism. Examples of cells are- blood cells, nerve cells, bone cells, etc.

Cells are made up of organelles which take care of everything starting from housing the cell’s DNA, to the manufacture of energy. Processes that take place inside the body are carried out on a cellular level.

For instance during the movement of the leg, it is the function of the nerve cells to transmit this signal from your brain to the muscle cells in your leg.

  1. Tissues: The tissue is composed of cells that have similar structure and function and which work together to carry out a particular function. Examples of tissues are blood, nervous, bone, etc.
    Human beings have 4 fundamental tissues: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nerve tissue. Animal tissue can be subdivided into 4: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
  2. Organs: Organs are composed of tissues that work together to perform a specific function. Examples of organs are the heart, brain, skin and so on. For instance, the brain is made up of a lot of different types of tissues which include the nervous and connective tissues.
  3. Systems: The system is a group of tissues to work together to achieve a particular function in an organism. Examples of systems are the circulatory system, nervous system, skeletal system, etc.
    The Human body is made up of 11 systems which include- circulatory, digestive, endocrine, excretory or urinary, immune or lymphatic, integumentary, muscular, nervous, reproductive, respiratory, and skeletal system.
    All these systems work together to keep the body functioning optimally. For example nutrients gotten through the digestive system are transported throughout the body by the circulatory system. In the same way, the circulatory system circulates the oxygen that is assimilated by the respiratory system.
  4. Organisms: This is the entire living things that can perform all basic life processes. This means that such living thing can take in materials, discharge energy from food, free wastes, grow, respond to the stimuli in the surroundings, and reproduce.
    The are normally made up of systems which combine together to form the organism but an organism can as well be composed of only a single cell like in the case of bacteria or protists such as bacteria, amoeba, mushroom, sunflower.

Living organisms are extremely ordered and possesses the ability to grow, develop, and reproduce. Multi-cellular organisms in addition to human beings depend on the collaboration between organs, tissues, cells, and system to exist.
The levels of organization of life in the right order is therefore
cells – tissues – organs – organ systems – organisms.
The pyramid of life is a hierarchical structure for the organization of life.