Snapchat acquires a friend location tracker app Zenly for $250M – $350M


Snapchat acquires a friend location tracker app Zenly for $250M – $350M

   Snapchat acquires a friend location tracker  app Zenly for $250M - $350M

S napchat’s newest feature, Snap Map, is based on its latest acquisition, social mapping startup Zenly. TechCrunch has learned that Snapchat has bought Zenly for between $250 million and $350 million in mostly cash and some stock in a deal that closed in late May. Snapchat will keep Zenly running independently, similar to how Facebook lets Instagram run independently.
Zenly’s app lets users see where their friends currently are on a map using constant GPS in the background. People can then message these friends in the app to make plans to hang out.
The Paris-based startup’s app has 4 million downloads according to Sensor Tower , with 28% from France but also sizeable numbers in Asia including 12% in South Korea and 8% in Japan. The app is mostly used by teens trying to keep up with their friends around town, at school, or at concerts and other events. Zenly had raised $35.1 million, including a $22.5 million Series B in September 2016 led by prestigious Silicon Valley venture capital firm Benchmark.
Zenly’s social map on the left looks extremely similar to Snapchat’s new Snap Map on the right… because Snap acquired Zenly
This morning, Snapchat launched its Snap Map location-sharing and location-based content discovery feature. It works slightly differently, only pulling your location when you open the app, but otherwise looks so similar to Zenly that we suspected Snapchat had copied it. Sources told us Snap expressed acquisition interest, but Zenly initially rejected them.
After more digging, we’ve learned from sources close to the deal that Snapchat did in fact acquire Zenly. A Zenly terms of service change on May 25th may be related to the deal. A Snapchat employee has also been spotted retweeting people congratulating Zenly’s founders.
Rather than shutting down Zenly and folding it into Snapchat, Snap Inc. will allow Zenly to run somewhat autonomously. We asked Snap, but it declined to comment, and Zenly hasn’t returned our inquiries. Instead, here’s TechCrunch’s
interview with Zenly CEO Antoine Martin at Disrupt London last year.
With both Snap Map and Zenly, Snap Inc. is hedging its bets in the social content space. Because its Snapchat Stories feature is being aggressively copied by Instagram and Facebook’s other apps, Snapchat is wise to expand into the social utility space of helping people meet up offline. Now Snap could own two different apps on people’s home screens.
Making plans with friends involves a high degree of intent — about what people want to eat or do — there are plenty of advertising and partnership opportunities down the line. You could imagine restaurants, movie studios and more hoping to hit Zenly or Snap Map users with ads as they plan to go out with friends.
Zenly’s app features
While $250 million to $350 million may seem like a lot to pay for Zenly, Snapchat has seen many of its other expensive acquisitions turn out well . It bought Looksery for $150 million in cash and bonuses, which went on to power its iconic augmented reality face filters. It bought Bitstrips for $64.2 million, which has flourished as Snapchat’s Bitmoji personalized avatar stickers. Story Search, QR Snapcodes and its Spectacles glasses were all based off its acquisitions of Vurb, Scan.me and Vergence Labs, respectively.
Zenly doesn’t seem to fit with Snap’s mission to be a camera company. But buying an app for meeting up with friends could let Snapchat own the path to doing the things worth capturing on camera.
Snapchat acquires social map app Zenly for $250M to $350M

How artificial intelligence imparts our lives


We are on the verge of a technological revolution that will fundamentally alter the way we live, work, and relate to one another unlike anything humankind has experienced before. The main driver for this technological revolution is Artificial Intelligence (AI).
Technological change driven by AI will change not only what we do but also who we are. It will affect our identity and all the issues associated with it: our sense of privacy, our notions of ownership, our consumption patterns, the time we devote to work and leisure, and how we develop our careers, cultivate our skills, and nurture relationships. But the development and applications of artificial intelligence can also present a dystopian threat to our collective and individual well being.
What is Artificial Intelligence?
From SIRI to self-driving cars, artificial intelligence (AI) is progressing rapidly. While science fiction often portrays AI as robots with human-like characteristics, AI can encompass anything from Google’s search algorithms to IBM’s Watson to autonomous robots and weapons systems.
Artificial intelligence today is often referred to as narrow AI (or weak AI), which is designed to perform a narrow task (eg:facial recognition or only internet searches or driving a car). The other kind of Artificial Intelligence is termed general AI (AGI or strong AI) which is designed to “think,” and solve problems much like humans. While narrow AI may outperform humans at a specific task is, like playing chess or solving equations, AGI would outperform humans at nearly every cognitive task.
Artificial intelligence involves the attempt to make machines think in the way humans do. The famous Turing Test is a test for intelligence in a computer, requiring that a human being should be unable to distinguish the machine from another human being by using the replies to questions put to both. Arthur Samuel, a pioneer in the field of Artificial Intelligence, defined machine learning as “the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed.” Machine Learning at its most basic is the practice of using algorithms to parse data, learn from it, and then make a conclusion or prediction.
Robots are autonomous or semi-autonomous machine applications of Artificial Intelligence that can act independently of external commands. Robots make use of artificial intelligence to improve their autonomous functions by learning. However, it is also common for robots to be designed with no capability to self-improve.
There are at least 33 types of Artificial Intelligence, examples of which you can read about at this link.
Artificial Intelligence and the Internet of Things (IoT)
Think of all the “smart” devices that exist in our world from phones to appliances and even entire buildings. These devices are all connected through the “cloud” to the Internet, with the capability of communicating with each other.
An estimated 25 billion connected “things” will be in use by 2020. 65% of approximately 1,000 global business executives surveyed say they agree organizations that leverage the internet of things will have a significant advantage. The IoT market is predicted to grow to $1.7 trillion by 2020, marking a compound annual growth rate of 16.9%.
Technology author Anthony D. Williams argues, “Virtually every animate and inanimate object on Earth could be generating and transmitting data, including our homes, our cars, our natural and man-made environments, and yes, even our bodies.”
The Dark Side of Artificial Intelligence
The question of the possibility of AI becoming malevolent or destructive has been raised. Experts think two scenarios most likely:
The AI device or program does something destructive: For example, autonomous weapons that are programmed to kill.
The AI is programmed to do something beneficial, but it develops a destructive method for achieving its goal: For example, an AI system is tasked with a ambitious geoengineering project, but it might wreak havoc with our ecosystem as a side effect, and view human attempts to stop it as a threat to be met.
In a paper published in the journal Science Robotics, researchers Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt, and Luciano Floridi point out that policing robotics is extremely difficult. And as artificial intelligence becomes more widespread, it’s going to become a greater problem for society.
In 2015, Elon Musk donated $10 million to, as reported in Wired magazine, “to keep A.I. from turning evil.” Musk, Bill Gates and Stephen Hawking have all issued warnings of the dark side of Artificial Intelligence, if we fail to control its development.
Artificial Intelligence Research and Applications
New “deep learning” artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms are showing promise in performing medical work which until recently was thought only capable of being done by human physicians. For example, deep learning algorithms have been able to diagnose the presence or absence of tuberculosis (TB) in chest x-ray images with astonishing accuracy.
Researchers at Google were able to train an AI to detect spread of breast cancer into lymph node tissue on microscopic specimen images with accuracy comparable to (or greater than) human pathologists. Similarly, neural networks have shown to be (slightly) better than human physicians at detecting changes of diabetes in images of patient’s retinas. In other words, these early investigations into deep learning medical AI demonstrate that the algorithms can do as well as (if not better than) expert human physicians in some fields of medical diagnosis and prognosis.
Here’s a sample of the kinds of AI research and applications that either currently exist or are in development:
Researchers at Vanderbilt, Virginia Tech and Yale universities have discovered that brain scans can reveal a criminal suspect’s ‘state of knowledge’ (shades of the movie Minority Report);
Despite the common preconception that creating emotionally intelligent computers is something that won’t happen until far into the future, computers can already augment — and in some cases even replace — emotional intelligence Sony has announced plans to create customer service robots that will develop emotional bonds with customers; And apps like Cogito use AI to guide human agents in using more emotional intelligence as they work with customers;
AI versions of therapists have accurately predicted suicidal patients, depressive behavior, and criminality;
Scientists at the University of Oxford have developed software that can read lips correctly 93.4 per cent of the time – a level that far surpasses the best professionals;
In a significant step forward for artificial intelligence, Alphabet’s hybrid system — called a Differential Neural Computer (DNC) or DeepMind, is now capable of teaching itself based on information it already possesses;
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has upgraded its approach to surveillance by focusing on a new “technology-first” strategy that sees it using deep learning, neural networks to scan big data in order to predict when and where trouble is likely to occur in the US;
DeepMind’s AlphaGo Artificial Intelligence has won the final match of the Go series against world champion Lee Sedol. The 3,000-year-old Chinese board game has proved notoriously hard to master for AI developers due to the sheer number of possible moves;
Australian scientists have built an artificial intelligence system that can predict whether or not you will die soon by looking at images of your organs with about 69% accuracy.
For an expanded description of 59 things Artificial Intelligence can do, go here.
Robotics
The word “Robotics” was first used by Isaac Asimov, an acclaimed science fiction writer. Asimov also devised the “Three Laws of Robotics” that define how robots should interact with humans.
We can define a robot as “any automatically operated machine that replaces human effort, though it may not resemble human beings in appearance or perform functions in a humanlike manner.” A robot designed specifically to look and act like a human, particularly if it has an external skin-like surface and facial expressions is called an Android.
China is already the world’s largest producer of industrial robots, supplying about 27% of the global market since 2015. It’s also the largest buyer of robots.
Here are some examples of the research and use of robots currently:
Researchers are working to build humanoid robots that can sense the world and give robots human-level navigation abilities. The robots will use a combination of tactile sensors, gyroscopes, cameras, and microphones to enhance their sensing abilities and use that data to understand the world;
Scientists created fleshy “bio-bots” made of living cells which can wriggle and walk. FEDOR — short for Final Experimental Demonstration Object Research — is a humanoid robot developed by Android Technics and the Advanced Research Fund. The multi-talented bot can drive a car, use various tools (including keys), screw in light bulbs, and even do pushups. It has also proven capable of working in extreme conditions. Now, FEDOR has added shooting handguns to its skill set;
China’s new robot police officers have started patrolling streets. The E-Patrol Robot Sheriff is able to track and follow potential criminals or suspicious people via facial recognition, according to the Economic Daily. Besides fighting crime, the robot officer is also capable of monitoring air quality and temperature, and is supposed to be able to track potential criminal activity, safety hazards and potential fires. Dubai’s government is introducing a “new fleet of intelligent police androids” that will be patrolling streets, malls and other crowded public spaces in 2017;
The U.S. Defense Department is designing robotic fighter jets that would fly into combat alongside manned aircraft. It has tested missiles that can decide what to attack, and it has built ships that can hunt for enemy submarines, stalking those it finds over thousands of miles, without any help from humans;
Sometimes referred to as “cloud robotics,” networks of robots are already teaching one another about what they learn as they interact with the world. This co-evolution could occur rapidly and enable robots to quickly become even more physically and mentally capable of engaging with the world than any single human being;
The company, Soul Machines, has created a virtual chatbot called Nadia that can not only portray human emotion, but also read human facial expressions.
A new Tokyo hotel staffed mostly by robots and automatons, has recently opened. Nine types of robots help with check-ins, clean the lobby, and entertain guests;
Researchers at the University of Utah have developed a surgery-assisting robot capable of performing complex brain surgeries. The machine can reduce the time of surgeries by cutting down the time it takes to cut into the skull from two hours to two and a half minutes;
A company, PassivDom, uses a 3D printing robot that can print the walls, roof, and floor of a 380-square-foot model home in about eight hours. When complete, the homes are autonomous and mobile, meaning they don’t need to connect to external electrical and plumbing systems;
Harmony is a sexbot – a silicone sex robot with artificial intelligence (AI) who looks human, feels human and responds in an eerily human way.
Artificial intelligence, Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR)
Virtual reality (VR), which can be referred to as immersive multimedia or computer-simulated reality, replicates an environment that simulates a physical presence in places in the real world or an imagined world, allowing the user to interact in that world. Virtual reality is the umbrella term for all immersive experiences, which could be created using purely real-world content, purely synthetic content or a hybrid of both. CG VR is an immersive experience created entirely from computer-generated content. CG VR can be either pre-rendered and therefore not reactive—in this way it is very similar to 360° video—or rendered in real time using a games engine. Augmented reality (AR) is a live, direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data.
VR headsets—such as Sony’s Morpheus, or Facebook’s Oculus Rift—block out the surrounding world and, making use of an old trick called stereoscopy, show slightly different images of each to a user’s eyes. That fools his brain into creating an illusion of depth, transforming the pair of images into a single experience of a fully three-dimensional world. Motion trackers, either mounted on the headset or externally, keep track of the users’ head, updating the view as he moves it around; optional hand controllers allow him to interact with virtual objects. The result is a reasonably convincing illusion of being somewhere else entirely.
Augmented reality, by contrast, does not dispense with the real world, but uses computers to improve it in various ways. AR, by design, maintains its users’ connection with the real world, and that means that a headset is not necessary. Heads-up displays are an early example of AR, but there are others: VeinViewer, for instance, is a medical device that projects images of a patients’ veins onto his skin, to help doctors aim injections.
Google has developed Expeditions, a virtual reality platform built for classrooms. Students can use Cardboard to take guided tours of famous cities like Barcelona, Spain, or inaccessible places like space.
The Virtual Reality Medical Center (VRMC)
specializes in VR exposure therapy, particularly in the treatment of fear of flying. The center utilizes a real, repurposed commercial airliner seat. Patients undergoing psychotherapy are belted into the seat and equipped with a head-mounted display, at which point they are taken through the entire experience of a flight, from take-off to safe landing.
Artificial Intelligence and Cybersecurity
Cyberspace is an increasingly hostile environment. In 2015, a PwC study of U.S. organizations found that 79 percent of respondents had detected a security incident during the year.Cyber-attackers are leveraging automation technology to launch strikes, while
many organizations are increasingly using AI to aggregate internal security findings and contextualizing them with external threat information. Unveiled to the world in April, AI-Squared is a collaborative project between MIT’s Computer Science and AI Laboratory (CSAIL) and a machine-learning startup known as PatternEx. Its function – to identify cyber-attacks.
Artificial Intelligence and the New Workplace
AI technology is and will continue to be a major disruptor in the workplace and jobs. In January 2016, the World Economic Forum released a report predicting AI, machine learning, and other nascent technologies will spur a so-called “Fourth Industrial Revolution” that replaces 5.1 million jobs by 2020. According to the report, jobs across every industry and every geographical region in 15 of the world’s largest economies — Australia, Brazil, Germany, China, Japan, the UK and the US, among others — will be affected. Six jobs are eliminated for every robot introduced into the workforce, a new study says.
In 2013, Oxford University researchers In a published paper titled: “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerization”
C.B. Frey and M.A. Osborne, researchers at Oxford University, created a model that calculates the probability of substituting a worker in a given sector. Frey and Osborne conclude machines may replace 47% of active workers in the future. Of 1,896 prominent scientists, analysts, and engineers questioned in a recent Pew survey on the future of jobs, 48% of them said the AI revolution will be a permanent job killer on a vast scale. The Bank of England has warned that within the coming decades as many as 80 million jobs in the U.S. could be replaced by robots.
A team of researchers led by Katja Grace of Oxford University’s Future of Humanity Institute
surveyed several hundred machine-learning experts to get their educated guess. The researchers used the responses to calculate the median number of years it would take for AI to reach key milestones in human capabilities. Overall, the respondents believe there is a 50% chance that AI beats humans at all tasks in 45 years and will automate all human jobs within 120 years. Experts believe artificial intelligence will be better than humans at all tasks within 45 years, according to a new report.
One of the surprises of AI in the last 50 years is that people thought we would start by automating the trivial things, like construction work or cleaning toilets and the hardest things would be what doctors and lawyers do. It actually turns out to be exactly the opposite. Doctors and lawyers are much easier to automate than street sweepers.
Obviously, the major question we must answer is what will people do if large numbers of jobs are taken by Artificial Intelligence programs or robots? Millions of white-collar workers could now be at risk according to politicians and business leaders meeting at the World Economic Forum. In his book, Rise of the Robots, Martin Ford describes the social and economic disruption that is likely to result when educated workers can no longer find employment.
Futurist Jeremy Rifkin contends we are entirely a new phase in history, one characterized by a steady and inevitable decline of jobs. He says the world of work is being polarized into two forces: One, an information elite that controls the global economy; and the other, a growing number of displaced workers.
AI and Management in Organizations
In the years ahead, everyone from doctors, lawyers and scientists to journalists, will find themselves working with, and may be replaced by Artificial Intelligence machines. Computers are becoming increasingly capable of making decisions, taking complex actions, and performing “knowledge work.”
An Economist special report, “The Future of Jobs,” described how entire professions will be impacted through automation and AI. Accounting and auditing examples of business functions which can increasingly be done by expert AI systems, putting these professions at risk, at least in their current form. Middle management decision making processes based on financials are similarly capable of being driven by AI algorithms.
At a Rotterdam School of Management (RSM)
Leadership Summit on Big Data, an expert panel briefly discussed the implications of AI advances in terms of management. As an example, airline autopilots were raised as a domain where computer decision making surpasses human decision making. Similarly, with rapid advances in computer driven automobiles, such as Google car, we are now within generational sight of the obsolescence of human drivers.
Managers might like to believe that they have better hiring judgment than a computer, but a
working paper (paywall) from the National Bureau of Economic Research suggests otherwise. The researchers looked at the employment record of 300,000 low-skill service sector workers across 15 companies. The jobs had low retention rates, with the average worker lasting just 99 days, but researchers found that employees stayed in the job 15% longer when an algorithm was used to judge their employability.
Which white collar professions may be immune to AI and automation? In essence, professions which help people find and pursue ‘meaning’ and fulfillment will be increasingly necessary. For example, ‘divinity consultants’ may work with people to help connect them to a religious tradition to which they will develop a personal connection. And imagine ‘leisure time advisors’ and ‘experience orchestrators’ – a hypothetical mixture of tourism specialist, hobby advisor, and therapist. Leisure time is increasingly a precious resource for which technology will compete for attention. Those who can manage the connection of personal desires and
happiness to new technical possibilities will be in demand. But traditional jobs that are routinized and susceptible to algorithms can be replaced by AI and robots.
A study from the Human-Computer Interaction Lab at the University of Manitoba, suggests that you’ll probably obey a robot boss nearly as predictably as you would a human. The researchers found humans willing to take orders from computers, but much less readily from other humans.
McKinsey’s Rik Kirkland, Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee argue senior managers are far from obsolete. As machine learning progresses at a rapid pace, top executives will be called on to create the innovative new organizational forms needed to crowd source the far-flung human talent that’s coming online around the globe. Those executives will have to emphasize their creative abilities, their leadership skills, and their strategic thinking to a much greater degree.
AI sophistication will expand into many HR functions. For example, Jobaline, a job-placement site, uses intelligent voice analysis algorithms to evaluate job applicants. The algorithm assesses paralinguistic elements of speech, such as tone and inflection, predicts which emotions a specific voice will elicit, and identifies the type of work at which an applicant will likely excel.
Advances in technology are causing firms to restructure their organizational makeup, transform their HR departments, develop new training models, and reevaluate their hiring practices. This is according to Deloitte’s 2017 Human Capital Trends Report, which draws on surveys from over 10,000 HR and business leaders in 140 countries. Many of these changes are a result of the early penetration of basic AI software, as well as preparation for the organizational needs that will emerge as they mature.
A survey done by the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on the Future of Software and Society shows people expect artificial intelligence machines to be part of a company’s board of directors by 2026.
A report by MIT published in Sloan Review makes this provocative statement: “An inevitable shift in which a parent-to-child way of looking at the relationship between the manager and his or her team would be questioned and ultimately superseded by an adult-to-adult form. The nexus of this more adult relationship concerns how commitments are made and how information is shared. When technology enables many people to have more information about themselves and others, it’s easier to take a clear and more mature view of the workplace. Self-assessment tools, particularly those that enable people to diagnose what they do and how they do it, can help employees pinpoint their own productivity issues. They have less need for the watchful eyes of a manager.” One could easily imagine that the “the end of management” is in sight — crushed by peer feedback, pushed out by specialist roles, disintermediated by powerful platforms, and exposed by social network analysis.
The Universal Basic Income
One of the possible solutions to the massive unemployment that could result from the implementation of Artificial Intelligence in the workplace is the institution of a “Universal Basic Income,” in which all citizens or residents of a country regularly receive a regular, unconditional sum of money, either from a
government or some other public institution, in addition to any income received from elsewhere. And it would replace the current system of social welfare payments.
Finland, France, and Canada have already approved pilot tests for government-provided universal basic income, something Elon Musk has said will be an inevitable necessity as A.I. spreads. Basic income has been tested for decades. Last month, Finland voted to give the system a try starting in 2016. In the Netherlands, it has been spreading rapidly since the Dutch city of Utrecht launched an experimental program earlier this summer. The US even tested out a system in the 1960s under the Nixon administration, although the experiment eventually fizzled. But just recently the state of Hawaii passed legislation for the Universal Basic Income for state residents. For four years, in the small Canadian town of Dauphin, residents making less than $13,800 annually were given $4,800 per year to supplement their income. During this time, the population saw a decline in the number of mental health-related visits to the doctor and fewer hospital admissions due to “accident and injury,” as well as few mental health diagnoses in general. These findings were also corroborated by a similar program implemented nearly two decades later on Cherokee land in the United States.
French policy analysts Nicolas Colin and Bruno Palier recommend that other countries adopt the Nordic model of “flexicurity” in which benefits are decoupled from jobs. By guaranteeing access to health care, housing and training, “people won’t be so terrified of switching jobs or losing a job,” they say in another Foreign Affairs piece.
Tesla CEO Elon Musk, Y Combinator President Sam Altman, and Facebook Cofounder Chris Hughes have all endorsed basic income. (Altman and Y Combinator are leading a basic-income trial in Oakland, California).
Artificial Intelligence and Education
To a significant degree, the Artificial Intelligence revolution will make obsolete, or at least, require us to rethink the current system of education and workplace training and development.
“In next century, schools as we know them will no longer exist,” says a feature in The Age publication, based in Melbourne, Australia. “In their place will be community-style centers operating seven days a week, 24 hours a day.” Computers will become an essential ingredient in the recipe for an effective school of the future. Students, The Age asserts, will see and hear teachers on computers, with “remote learning” the trend of tomorrow. Accessing “classrooms” on their home computers, students will learn at times most convenient for them. Yet some attendance at an actual school will be required to help students develop appropriate social skills.
In the 2011 book The Innovative University, Clayton Christensen, a professor of business administration at Harvard, argues that universities could be overtaken by competitors if they fail to adopt new technologies. Children need to learn social and emotional skills if they are to thrive in the workplace of the future, a World Economic Forum report has found.
The new research shows that as the digital economy transforms the workplace, Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) skills such as
collaboration, communication and problem solving will become ever more important as more traditional roles are mechanized. With more than half of children now entering school expected to work in jobs that don’t yet exist, adaptability is becoming a core skill.
A 48-page report titled “Preparing for the Future of Artificial Intelligence ” concludes it is time to stop thinking of higher education as an experience that people take part in once during their young lives — or even several times as they advance up the professional ladder — and begin thinking of it as a platform for lifelong learning. Colleges and universities need to be doing more to move beyond the array of two-year, four-year, and graduate degrees that most offer, and toward a more customizable system that enables learners to access the learning they need when they need it. This will be critical as more people seek to return to higher education repeatedly during their careers, compelled by the imperative to stay ahead of relentless technological change.
Here are some ways in which Artificial Intelligence will have a huge impact on both the structure and delivery of higher education:
AI can create unique learning pathways for individual learners in MOOCs and blended and online learning;
AI could allow researchers to bring together vast amounts of data for the benefit of learners and advancement of knowledge;
AI could provide the opportunity for global classrooms and connect learners globally;
Intelligent Tutor Systems also can provide timely guidance, feedback and explanations to the learner and can promote productive learning behaviors, such as self-regulation, self-monitoring, and self-explanation. Furthermore, Intelligent Tutor Systems can also prescribe learning activities at the level of difficulty and with the content most appropriate for the learner;
AI can help organize and synthesize content to support content delivery. Known as deep learning systems, technology can read, write and emulate human behavior. For example, Dr. Scott R. Parfitt’s Content Technologies, Inc. (CTI) enables educators to assemble custom textbooks. Educators import a syllabus and CTI’s engine populates a textbook with the core content;
Leading-edge technologies like wearable devices, apps, and virtual reality can also improve SEL skills. Wearables are already being used to help students manage their emotions and build communication skills, while virtual reality can be used to take children on virtual field trips that build curiosity and improve critical thinking;
In recent years, thanks to online services, students have been able to get help from peers thousands of miles away. Now with the help of AI and Machine Learning, finding remote help is becoming even easier. Brainly, a social network that helps millions of students collaborate, is exploring the power of AI on its platform.
Artificial Intelligence and Training and Development
In the future of work, the most important skill is to be able to learn how to learn. The amount of knowledge available and the skills needed to be successful in the workplace are constantly changing, and the best employees know how to find the information they need and continually be honing their skills to be at the top of their game.
The corporate training market, which is over $130 billion in size, is about to be disrupted. Companies are starting to move away from their Learning Management Systems (LMS), buy all sorts of new tools for digital learning, and rebuild a whole new infrastructure to help employees learn. Programs such as GSuite, Microsoft Teams, Slack, and Workplace by Facebook are growing quickly. Axonify and Qstream can “space learning” based on your job and prescribe small nuggets just as needed. This is pushing vendors like Workday, Oracle, SuccessFactors, SumTotal and others are now reinventing the LMS — focusing on developing video-learning platforms that feel more like YouTube than an educational course catalog.
Deloitte Human Capital Trends’ newest research shows that “reinventing careers and learning” is now the #2 issue in business (followed only by reorganizing the company for digital business), creating urgency and budget in this area.
Walmart is betting big on virtual reality to help improve its employee training techniques, and it’s turned to a new company to help. TechCrunch is reporting that Walmart plans to install VR training platforms at each of its 200 Academy training centers across the U.S. by the end of the year. Each will have an Oculus Rift and a VR-ready PC to run it on.
Within the contemporary organization, staff-
coaching processes continue to evolve. This is achieved by migrating towards newer technologies and software systems that will adequately assist with a more dynamic mode of providing staff-training and development. Ari Kopoulos, writing for EmployeeConnect.com, says that “AI programs offer HR departments ways to train their staff, earn certifications, cross-train and learn new skills.” What is instinctive of AI-enriched software programs, is that they allow staff to engage in self-directed progress with their training, at their own comfortable pace.
ValeurHR.com points out AI-enriched learning systems are now beginning to offer “customizable employee-related training based on individual performance”. The impact of advancements like this will be numerous: can you imagine the gratification to be gained from knowing that each employee in your organization has access to their ‘own personal mentor?
John Seely Brown, former Chief Scientist at Xerox and Director of its Palo Alto Research Center argues “We must re-invent the workplace as a ‘learningscape.’” He goes on to say that we should build urban learning initiatives such as “Cities of Learning’’—a new movement in which employers, libraries, and museums are wired together to help kids find their interests outside school and pick up new skills—or networks of partners in the corporate world. A powerful example of this kind of learning is the use of GitHub and/or other open source communities. Or another: A rather conservative company, SAP, created an extended open source network that has a couple million participants who are learning with and from each other.
Paul Rosenbloom, professor of computer science at the University of Southern California is beginning to apply his AI platform, Sigma, to the ICT’s Virtual Humans program, which creates interactive, AI-driven 3D avatars. A virtual tutor with emotion, for instance, could show genuine enthusiasm when a student does well and unhappiness if a student is slacking off. “If you have a virtual human that doesn’t exhibit emotions, it’s creepy. It’s called uncanny valley, and it won’t have the impact it’s supposed to have,” Rosenbloom says.
Both Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) have an important place in the Artificial Intelligence revolution as it applies to education, training and development. The practical applicability of virtual reality and augmented reality in eLearning is a hotly discussed topic right now. A recent report produced by Horizon 2016, one of the most respected analytical groups, dedicates a number of pages to the question of using augmented and virtual reality in education. For now, potential applications in the fields of physics and medicine show the most promise. This being said, what good can these newfangled technologies do? First of all, virtual reality can transport students to the farthest corners of the observable universe in the blink of an eye and immerse them in a deep and engaging educational environment. Great motivational potential is another major benefit. Which is cooler? To read pages upon pages of text accompanied by black and white illustrations, or to find yourself on Mars and gather soil samples by hand? By the way, that was a rhetorical question.
In Summary: As you can see from the brief descriptions of the developments in Artificial Intelligence, they will have an enormous impact our personal and work lives. In the process, there will be much disruption, but it’s unlikely we will be able to stop this Fourth Industrial Revolution. But it does provide us with the opportunity to address ethical, moral, legal and social issues, including a proactive role of government in ensuring these developments are for the benefit of people.
Copyright, 2017 by Ray Williams.
https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/wired-success/201706/how-artificial-intelligence-will-impact-our-lives

New antibiotic for drug resistant bacteria


Scientists have discovered a new antibiotic that is highly effective against bacteria resistant to known antimicrobials, which was found in a soil sample taken in Italy.
Named “pseudouridimycin,” or PUM, the new antibiotic is produced by a microbe found in the soil.
It has killed a wide range of bacteria in laboratory tests and cured mice infected with scarlet fever.
Details of the discovery were published on Thursday in the US scientific journal Cell.
Pseudouridimycin neutralises an enzyme called polymerase that is essential to virtually all functions of every organism.
However, it acts differently than rifampicin, a class of antibiotics used to target the same enzyme.
Its mechanism means the new antibiotic is 10 times less likely to trigger drug resistance than those currently on the market.
PUM killed 20 species of bacteria in experiments, proving especially effective against streptococci and staphylococci, several of which are resistant to multiple antibiotics.
Clinical trials with PUM could begin within three years and the new antibiotic could be released on the market in the next 10 years, researchers at New Jersey’s Rutgers-New Brunswick University and the Italian biotechnology company Naicons said.
The discovery showed again that bacteria found in the soil are the best source of new antibiotics, the scientists said.
https://www.newsheadlines.com.ng/latest-punch-newspapers/2017/06/16/new-antibiotic-potentially-big-in-fighting-drug-resistant-bacteria/

successful penis transplant by south african doctors


South african doctors succeded in carrying out the world’s second penile transplant without any problem.
first successful penis transplant in south africa    by doctors
A team from Stellenbosch University (SU) and the Tygerberg Academic Hospital recently performed a second penis transplant, making it the first medical centre in the world to successfully perform this procedure twice.
This comes after the world’s first successful penis transplant was done in December 2014 at the same facility.
Prof André van der Merwe, Head of the Division of Urology at SU’s Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), led the marathon operation of nine and a half hours performed on 21 April.
The recipient was a 40-year-old male who had lost his penis 17 years ago due to complications after a traditional circumcision. His identity is being protected for ethical reasons.
No rejection
“He is certainly one of the happiest patients we have seen in our ward. He is doing remarkably well,” says Prof Van der Merwe.
“There are no signs of rejection and all the reconnected structures seem to be healing well.”
One of the team members Dr Amir Zarrabi says the first operation prepared them for the second one. “It was experimental, but now it is really scientific,” Zarrabi told Health24.
The patient is expected to regain all urinary and reproductive functions of the organ within six months of the transplant. A colour discrepancy between the recipient and the donor organ will be corrected with medical tattooing between six to eight months after the operation.
“Unfortunately we could not find a donor of the same race. In this case the donor is white and the recipient is black.”
Western Cape health minister Dr Nomafrench Mbombo called the procedure ground-breaking.
“This is a remarkable procedure. Traditional circumcision has claimed many young lives in South Africa. For this patient, life will never be the same again,” Dr Mbombo said.
The procedure
The entire penis was carefully dissected from the donor to keep blood vessels, nerves and other connecting structures intact. These were marked and connected to the recipient’s correlating tissue during the transplant.
The surgeons connected:
Three blood vessels (each between 1 and 2mm in diameter) to ensure sufficient blood flow to the transplanted organ;
Two dorsal nerves (also between 1 and 2mm in diameter) to restore sensation;
The urethra, which enables the recipient to urinate through the penis; as well as
The corpus cavernosum (cavernous body of the penis), which will allow the patient to obtain an erection.
“The diverse presentation of the blood vessels and nerves makes the operation very challenging and means each case is unique,” says one of the team members Dr Alexander Zühlke.
“All these structures need to be treated with the utmost delicacy and respect in order to be connected perfectly to ensure good circulation and function in the long term.
The requirement is that the donor must be brain-dead, but the heart must still be beating. “This is most effective way to make sure there is no rejection,” says Zarrabi.
Future
Dr Zarrabi is confident that their success will lead to more successful operations in the future.
“The loss of a penis from traditional circumcision is big, and we want to create sustainable programmes to help these people.”
http://m.health24.com/health24/News/Public-Health/see-sa-doctors-perform-second-successful-penis-transplant-20170522

dementia & memory loss: causes ,effect and treatment


We all experience memory loss at one point or the other in our life. This article was written to show the major causes of memory loss which is also reffered to as dementia in extreme medical cases.
 dementia & memory loss: causes ,effect and treatment
Many people become forgetful as they become older. This is common and is often not due to dementia. There are also other disorders such as depression and an underactive thyroid that can cause memory problems. Dementia is the most serious form of memory problem. It causes a loss of mental ability, and other symptoms. Dementia can be caused by various disorders which affect parts of the brain involved with thought processes. Most cases are caused by Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, or dementia with Lewy bodies. Symptoms of dementia develop gradually and typically become worse over a number of years. The most important part of treatment for dementia is good-quality support and care for the person with dementia and for their carers. In some cases, treatment with medicines may be helpful.
What is memory loss and what are the causes?
Everybody forgets things from time to time. In general, the things that you tend to forget most easily are the things that you feel do not matter as much. The things that you tend to remember most easily are the things that are important to you – for example, a special birthday. However, some people just seem to have a better memory than others, and some people are more forgetful than others.
There are certain situations that can affect your memory and make you become more forgetful than you normally are. They can include the following.

1.Poor concentration
If your concentration is poor then you do not notice things as much, and do not retain things as much as you would normally. Poor concentration can be a result of simply being bored or tired. However, it can also be a symptom of depression and anxiety.

2.Depression
As well as poor concentration, some people with depression also have slowed thinking. This can cause memory problems until the depression clears. Do tell a doctor if you think that you are depressed, as treatment often works well. Other symptoms of depression include:
A low mood for most of the time
Loss of enjoyment and interest in life
Abnormal sadness
Weepiness
Feelings of guilt or of being useless
Poor motivation
Sleeping problems
Tiredness
Difficulty with affection
Poor appetite
Being irritable or restless

3.Physical illness
If you feel ill, this can affect concentration and memory. Certain illnesses can directly affect the way your brain works. For example, an underactive thyroid can slow down your body’s functions, including your brain, and can make you more forgetful. Infections such as a chest infection or a urine infection can also cause sudden confusion and memory problems, particularly in older people.

4.Medicines
Certain medicines can cause confusion and memory problems in some people. For example, some sedative medicines, some painkilling medicines, some medicines that are used to treat Parkinson’s disease, or steroid medicines. Also, if you are taking lots of different medicines, this can increase the risk of them interacting with each other, causing problems, including confusion and memory problems.

5.Age:
As everyone gets older, it often becomes harder to remember things. This is called age-associated memory impairment. Many people over the age of 60 have this common problem, and it is not dementia. For example, it tends to be harder to learn new skills the older you become, or you may more easily forget the names of people you have recently met. It is thought that the more you use your brain when you are older, the more it may counter the development of this age-related decline in memory function. So, doing things such as reading regularly, quizzes, crosswords, memorising plays or poetry, learning new skills, etc, may help to keep your memory in good shape.
 dementia & memory loss: causes ,effect and treatment
Dementia
Dementia is the most serious form of memory problem. The rest of this leaflet is just about dementia.
What is dementia?
Dementia is a condition of the brain which causes a gradual loss of mental ability, including problems with memory, understanding, judgement, thinking and language. In addition, other problems commonly develop, such as changes in personality and changes in the way a person interacts with others in social situations. As dementia progresses, a person’s ability to look after them self from day to day may also become affected. There are various causes of dementia.

What are the different causes of dementia?

Dementia can be caused by various diseases or disorders which affect the parts of the brain involved with thought processes. However, most cases are caused by Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). All these types of dementia cause similar symptoms but some features may point to a particular cause. However, it may not be possible to say what is causing the dementia in every case.

Alzheimer’s disease
This is the most common type of dementia, causing about half of all cases. It is named after the doctor who first described it. In Alzheimer’s disease the brain shrinks (atrophies) and the numbers of nerve fibres in the brain gradually reduce. The amount of some brain chemicals (neurotransmitters) is also reduced – in particular, one called acetylcholine. These chemicals help to send messages between brain cells. Tiny deposits called plaques also form throughout the brain. It is not known why these changes in the brain occur, or exactly how they cause dementia. Alzheimer’s disease gradually progresses (worsens) over time as the brain becomes more and more affected.

Blood vessel dementia (vascular dementia)
This causes about a quarter of all cases of dementia. It is due to problems with the small blood vessels in your brain. The most common type is called multi-infarct dementia. In effect, this is like having many tiny strokes, that otherwise go unrecognised, throughout the thinking part of the brain. A stroke occurs when a blood vessel blocks and stops the blood getting past. So, the section of brain supplied by that blood vessel is damaged or dies (an infarct occurs). After each infarct, some more brain tissue is damaged. So, a person’s mental ability gradually declines. Vascular dementia can also sometimes happen after a more major stroke.
The risk of developing vascular dementia is increased by the same things that increase the risk of stroke. For example: high blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol level, lack of exercise, etc. However, it is now thought that some of these vascular risk factors may also be involved in the development of Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia as well.

Lewy body dementia/dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)
This causes about 15 in every 100 cases of dementia. Lewy bodies are tiny abnormal protein deposits that develop in nerve cells in the brain of people with this condition. It is not clear why the Lewy bodies develop but they interfere with the normal working of the brain.
If Lewy bodies develop in a part of the brain called the brain stem, as well as symptoms of dementia, someone may also develop symptoms similar to Parkinson’s disease. For example, stiffness, slowness of movement and a shuffling walk with difficulty in starting, stopping, and in turning easily.
Mixed dementia
Some people can have a degree of two different types of dementia at the same time. For example, both Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, or both Alzheimer’s disease and DLB. This is known as mixed dementia. However, in most cases of mixed dementia, there is usually one of the causes for dementia that is thought to be the main (predominant) cause. In this situation, treatment is aimed at the predominant cause of dementia.
Other causes of dementia
There are over 60 diseases which can cause dementia. Many are rare and, in many, the dementia is just part of other problems and symptoms. In most cases the dementia cannot be prevented or reversed. However, in some disorders the dementia can be prevented, or stopped from getting worse if treated. For example, some cases of dementia are caused by alcohol abuse, infections such as syphilis, or some vitamin deficiencies, all of which can be treated.

Who gets dementia?

Dementia is a common problem. According to figures provided by the Alzheimer’s society, there are currently 800,000 people with dementia in the UK. There are estimated to be over a million by 2021. The older you are the higher chance there is of getting dementia. Between the age of 65 and 74, 1-2 people in 100 will have dementia. By the age of 95, a quarter of people will have it. However, dementia is not a normal part of ageing. It is different to the age-associated memory impairment that is common in older people. Rarely, dementia affects younger people. Dementia is said to be early-onset (or young-onset) if it comes on before the age of 65. There are some groups of people who are known to have a higher risk of developing dementia. These include people with:

Down’s syndrome or other learning disabilities. People with Down’s syndrome are more likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease.

Parkinson’s disease.
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease ( angina, heart attack, stroke and peripheral arterial disease). The risk factors for cardiovascular disease (high blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol level, lack of exercise, etc) are risk factors for all types of dementia, not just blood vessel dementia (vascular dementia).

A family history of dementia. There is a small extra risk of getting dementia if you have a mother, father or sibling with dementia. Dementia also seems to run in some families so there may be some genetic factors that can make someone more likely to develop dementia. We do know that a few of the more rare causes of dementia can be inherited (can be passed on through genes in your family).

Severe psychiatric problems such as
schizophrenia or severe depression. It is not clear why this is the case.
A past history of a head injury.

Lower intelligence. Some studies have shown that people with a lower IQ and also people who do not have very high educational achievement are more likely to develop dementia.
A limited social support network.

Low physical activity levels. A lack of physical activity can increase your risk of dementia.
  dementia & memory loss: causes ,effect and treatment

What are the main dementia symptoms?
The symptoms of all types of dementia are similar. They can be divided into three main areas:

Loss of mental ability
Memory problems are usually the most obvious symptom in people with dementia.

Forgetfulness is common. As a rule, the most recent events are the first forgotten. For example, a person with early stages of dementia might go to the shops and then cannot remember what they wanted. It is also common to misplace objects. However, events of the past are often remembered well until the dementia is severe. Many people with dementia can talk about their childhood and early life. As dementia progresses, sometimes memory loss for recent events is severe and the person may appear to be living in the past. They may think of themself as young and not recognise their true age.
Someone with dementia may not know common facts when questioned (such as the name of the Prime Minister). They may have difficulty remembering names or finding words. They may appear to be asking questions all the time.

Language problems can also develop. For example, someone with dementia may have difficulty understanding what is said to them or understanding written information. Problems with attention and concentration can also occur. It is common for someone with dementia not to be able to settle to anything and this can make them appear restless.
New surroundings and new people may confuse a person with dementia: they can become easily disorientated. However, in familiar places, and with old routines, they may function well. This is why some people with mild dementia cope well in their own homes. Losing track of time is also a common problem in someone with dementia. For example, not knowing if it is morning or afternoon, or what day it is. A person with dementia may get lost easily.
Even clever people who develop dementia find it difficult to grasp new ideas or learn new skills. For example, how to use a new household gadget. The ability to think, calculate and problem-solve can be affected as intellect begins to fail. Difficulties with planning and decision making can develop.
Changes in mood, behaviour and personality
At first, someone with dementia may appear to be easily irritated or moody. It is often family or friends who notice this. Some people with early dementia recognise that they are failing and become depressed. However, many people with dementia are not aware that they have it. They may remain cheerful. The distress is often felt more by relatives who may find it difficult to cope.
More challenging behaviour may develop in some people over time. Some people with dementia can also become agitated or even aggressive and this may be directed towards their carers. They may become suspicious or fearful of others. In some people, delusions (abnormal beliefs) and hallucinations (a false perception of something that is not really there) can occur. Visual hallucinations can be a common problem in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).
Mood, behaviour and personality changes may mean that someone with dementia is not able to interact with others in a social situation and they can become quite withdrawn. Sleep is often affected and pacing and restless wandering can become a problem for some.
Problems carrying out day-to-day activities
Difficulty with self-care usually develops over time. For example, without help, some people with dementia may not pay much attention to personal hygiene. They may forget to wash or change their clothes. Remembering to take medication can become an issue. The person may also have difficulty keeping up their home. Shopping, cooking and eating may become difficult. This can lead to weight loss. Driving may be dangerous and not possible for someone with dementia.
😃some people. In the beginning, symptoms are often put down to other causes. There may also be a degree of protection by friends, carers and relatives who help the person to look after themself and, by doing so, cover up the person’s inability.
Saying that, commonly, it is not the person with the symptoms but rather their relatives, carers or friends who have concerns that the person may have dementia. They may be concerned about the person’s memory or behaviour. However, people with a high intellect or a demanding job, may notice themselves that their mental ability is starting to fail.

Visit your doctor
The first step if you are concerned that you may be developing dementia is to see your doctor. Or, if you are worried that someone close to you may have dementia, you should encourage them to see their doctor. They may agree for you to see their doctor with them.
Your doctor may suggest some special tests to look at your memory and mental ability, to see whether dementia is likely or not. This does not take long and is usually a series of questions or other exercises that your doctor asks you to complete.
Your doctor may also suggest some routine tests to make sure that there are no other obvious causes for your symptoms. For example, blood tests to look for infection, vitamin deficiencies, an underactive thyroid gland, etc. If infection is suspected, they may suggest a urine test, a chest X-ray or other investigations. They may also ask questions to make sure that your symptoms are not due to, for example, depression, any medicines that you may be taking, or excess alcohol intake.
        dementia & memory loss: causes ,effect and treatment
There is no cure for dementia and no medicine that will reverse dementia. However, there are some medicines that may be used to help in some causes of dementia. Medication is generally used for two different reasons. Firstly, as treatment to help with symptoms that affect thinking and memory (cognitive symptoms). Secondly, as treatment to help with symptoms that affect mood and how someone behaves (non-cognitive symptoms).
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
These include donepezil , rivastigmine and
galantamine. They work by increasing the level of acetylcholine. This is a chemical in the brain that is low in people with Alzheimer’s disease. These medicines are not a cure for Alzheimer’s disease. However, they may help to treat some of the symptoms affecting thinking and memory in about half of people with Alzheimer’s disease.

Memantine
Memantine is also licensed for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease in some people. It works by reducing the amount of a brain chemical called glutamate. It is thought that this may help to slow down the damage to brain cells affected by Alzheimer’s disease. Like the medicines above, this is not a cure. Some research studies have shown that it seems to slow down the progression of the symptoms in some cases.
Other medication
An antidepressant may be advised if depression is suspected. Depression is common in people with dementia and may be overlooked.
Aspirin and other medicines to treat the risk factors for stroke and heart disease may be appropriate for some people – especially those with vascular dementia.
Sleeping tablets are sometimes needed if difficulty sleeping is a persistent problem.
A tranquilliser or an antipsychotic medicine is sometimes prescribed as a last resort for people with dementia who become easily agitated.

Support and care is the most important part of treatment
When someone is diagnosed with dementia, a full assessment may be suggested to look at their practical skills, their ability to look after themself, their safety in their home, etc. This usually involves assessment by a number of different healthcare professionals (see below). An individual care plan may be drawn up that outlines the person’s specific needs. The aim is to maintain the independence of someone with dementia as much as possible and for as long as possible.
Most people with dementia are cared for in the community. Often, the main carer is a family member. It is important that carers get the full support and advice which is locally available. Support and advice may be needed from one or more of the following healthcare and allied professionals, depending on the severity of the dementia and the individual circumstances:
District nurses can advise on day-to-day nursing care.
Occupational therapists can advise on changes to the physical environment, which may help a person with dementia. For example, handrails and grab bars, labelling of objects, removing items that are not needed in the home.
Physiotherapists can help. For example, with exercises to help maintain mobility.
Community psychiatric nurses can advise on caring for people with mental illness. Sometimes a specialist assessment by a psychiatrist may be needed.
Social Services can advise on local facilities such as daycare centres, benefits, help with care in the home, sitting services, respite care, etc.
People who can advise on financial and legal matters, such as lasting power of attorney.
Voluntary organisations can be a good source of advice. If you care for a person with dementia, it is well worth getting information about the help that is available in your local area. In most areas of the UK there are organisations that provide support and advice for carers of people with dementia. Your local library or citizens advice bureau will often have contact details. Some organisations are also listed at the end of this leaflet.
The level of care and support needed often changes over time.

Other possible treatments
There are some other treatments and things that may be helpful for some people with dementia, particularly in certain situations. These include the following.
Measures to help simplify the daily routine and enhance memory may help some people. For example, planning out and writing down a daily routine. This may include writing reminders to do certain things such as putting the rubbish out, locking the door at night-time, etc. Making sure that clothing, keys, glasses or other things that are used often are put in prominent places where they can be found easily may also be helpful. Labelling of commonly used objects may be another useful tool. An occupational therapist may be able to advise.
Reality orientation is thought to help in some cases. This involves giving regular information to people with dementia about times, places, or people to keep them orientated. It may range from simple things such as having a board in a prominent place, giving details of the day, date, season, etc to staff in a residential home reorientating a person with dementia at each contact.
Cognitive stimulation (stimulating the brain) may help to improve memory, language and problem-solving ability. For example, by recreational activities, problem-solving activities, and talking to the person with dementia. In addition, recreational activities may enhance quality of life and well-being.
Regular physical activity, if possible, such as walking, dancing, etc, may help to slow down the decline in mobility that is common in people with dementia. It may also help if depression is a problem.
Reminiscence therapy may help in some cases. This involves encouraging people to talk about the past so that past experiences are brought into their current thoughts. It relies on long-term memory which is often quite good in people with mild-to-moderate dementia.
Cognitive behavioural therapy is sometimes tried to help treat depression that is quite common in people with dementia.
Behavioural therapy may also be used to treat any problems related to behaviour that someone with dementia may have. This type of therapy looks for possible reasons for certain behaviours. For example, someone who wanders a lot may in fact be doing this because they are feeling quite restless. In this situation, taking part in regular physical activity may help.
Animal-assisted therapy may sometimes be suggested to help people with dementia who have challenging behaviour such as agitation or aggression. For example, allowing the person to spend time with and interact with a trained dog.
Sensory stimulation – for example, using music, lights, sounds, smells, massage and aromatherapy to stimulate the brain. This may also be helpful for some people with dementia – for example, to improve their mood or feelings of restlessness.
Driving and dementia
Vehicle drivers who have been diagnosed with dementia are legally required to inform the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA). They may be able to continue driving a car or a motorcycle safely for some time. But they may be asked to have a driving test and/or their doctor may be asked to complete a medical report for the DVLA. If someone is able to continue to drive, this will usually be reviewed on a yearly basis. Someone who has been diagnosed with dementia will not be able to continue to drive a bus (or other vehicle that carries passengers) or a lorry or large goods vehicle.
Can dementia be prevented?
At present, there are no specific medicines or treatments that are definitely known to reduce your chance of developing dementia. However, some things do show some promise.
As mentioned above, having risk factors for cardiovascular disease can increase your risk of developing all types of dementia. These risk factors include:
Smoking
Raised cholesterol levels
Drinking too much alcohol
Not doing enough physical activity
Being overweight
Having diabetes or high blood pressure
Therefore, it would seem likely that doing something to modify these risk factors may reduce your risk of developing dementia.
Keeping your brain active may also help to reduce your risk of developing dementia. So, for example, consider reading books, learning a foreign language, playing a musical instrument, taking up a new hobby, etc.
Many studies are going on to look into treatments which may help to prevent dementia. These include certain blood pressure medicines, omega-3 fatty acids, brain training exercises as well as the strategies discussed above. However, there is not yet convincing evidence available for any of these.
https://patient.info/health/memory-loss-and-dementia